Mauritanian house in the complex of the Szuster palace, Warszawa
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Mauritanian house in the complex of the Szuster palace

Warszawa

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The pavilion constitutes part of the historical complex which is what remained of the 18th century palace and park complex created for Izabela Lubomirska nee Czartoryska and converted in 19th century for the subsequent owners. It is evidence of the former sentimental landscape complex which was included in the city area at a later time. The pavilion is an example of park building with neo-Gothic and Mauritanian features. It is considered one of the first buildings in Poland with asymmetrical, picturesque layout of the body, consistent with the principles of Romantic architecture.

History

The Mauritanian House, earlier called Flemish Gloriette, came into being before 1780 as a garden pavilion of a sentimental residence located in the suburbs of Warsaw. The complex was created in the years 1771-1785 for Izabela Lubomirska nee Czartoryska in the area of gradually extended estate of Mokotów. The first architect employed for that purpose was Efraim Schroeger, and from 1773 - also Szymon Bogumił Zug. The facility in consideration was one of the two gate buildings designed by Zug, located within the wall running along the western border of the property. It was situated at the northern driveway leading to a summer palace. Its counterpart on the south was the Tower of Dovecote with a driveway from the side of the manor farm. The buildings are the only surviving park pavilions out of many such facilities created at that time in various styles and distributed across the complex. The building, constructed in the style of Flemish Baroque with Classicists features added at a later time, comprised of a body built on a rectangular floor plan and a higher, round tower, was adjoined from the north by a gate and a room for the gatekeeper. The pavilion was designed as a landscape element, closing the axis of the palace. In the years 1824-25, part of the buildings of the complex were transformed to the order of the new owner, Anna Potocka-Wąsowicz, according to a design by Henryk Marconi. At that time, Glorietta was rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style with oriental elements and was renamed to Mauritanian House. It was probably at that time when the lower annex, visible in photographs from the turn of the 19th and the 20th century, was added to it from the south. In 1845, large part of the property was bought by a burgher and famous lithographer - Franciszek Szuster. In the years 1890-1944, the building which was then located just outside the Szuster Garden, housed a cordage workshop of Andrzej Duda. As a result of the fights during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, the building suffered substantial damage. It was renovated only in the years 1960-63.

Description

Today, the bricked and plastered building is situated on a pavement, just next to the road on the eastern side of Puławska Street. It is located within a small distance from the north-western border of the Promenada - Morskie Oko park which, in part, constitutes remains of a former landscape complex. The building is made up of a square body and a tower built on a round floor plan, added to its south-eastern corner. During the neo-Gothic reconstruction according to a design by Henryk Marconi, the tower remained unchanged. Part of the ground floor of the pavilion, pierced with pointed-arch openings after the conversion, was used as an arcaded passageway. In the present times, however, it was filled with glazed windows and doors with plastic frames, do not corresponding with the historical form of the building. The building decorations are inspired by the forms distinctive for the neo-Gothic period. The corners of the bottom storey are decorated with rusticated buttresses. The upper storey, separated by a pronounced cornice, is topped with entablature with diagonal dentils and a high parapet with crenelations with triangular top sections. The tower, which is higher than the body, is covered with a conical roof clad in wood shingles. Its rusticated façades are adorned with small oval window openings allowing light to the spiral staircase. The rustication of the ground floor of the tower features an interesting form of cylindrical strips. From the south and north, façades of the upper storey of the body are pierced with large, neo-Gothic, pointed-arch windows of porte-fenetre type, with metal balustrades. From the street, the façade of the upper storey features a large window comprised of three narrow, pointed-arch parts partitioned with spiral wooden columns supporting a slanted roof. Flat sections of the walls are adorned with panels with decorative grid, and wattle and daub ornaments associated with the Mauritanian style. The interior currently houses a gallery.

The monument is accessible.

compiled by Małgorzata Laskowska-Adamowicz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warszawa, 24-08-2015.

Bibliography

  • Karta Ewidencyjna, Glorieta Flamandzka, oprac. Adam Konopacki, Warszawa 1986 r., Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa
  • Ewidencja parku Promenada przy pałacu Szustrów w Warszawie oprac. Hanna Spychaj, Joanna Zawadzka-Roman, Warszawa 1984, Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa
  • Jaroszewski T. S., O siedzibach neogotyckich w Polsce, Warszawa 1981
  • Jaroszewski T. S, Orient w architekturze polskiej XIX w., w: Od klasycyzmu do nowoczesności, Warszawa 1996.
  • Kwiatkowski M., Szymon Bogumił Zug architekt polskiego oświecenia, Warszawa 1971
  • Leśniakowska M., Architektura w Warszawie, Warszawa 1998, s. 213
  • Lorentz S., Efraim Szreger Architekt polski XVIII wieku, Warszawa 1986
  • Polanowska J., Mokotów - ogród krajobrazowy Izabelli Lubomirskiej dedykowany Jean- Jacques Rousseau, Biuletyn Historii Sztuki, 2013, nr 3, s. 437-485
  • Świątek T. W., Mokotów poprzez wieki , Warszawa 2009
  • Zakrzewska M., Mokotów. Pałacyk i założenie ogrodowe, „Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki", 1962, nr 1, s. 45-69

General information

  • Type: park pavilion
  • Chronology: 1780 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Puławska 55, Warszawa
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district Warszawa, commune Warszawa
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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