Z portu do miasta
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Z portu do miasta

8

several hours

pomorskie

Market Hall Complex (main hall and fish hall)
Gdynia

15 minuts

The innovative structure is one of the largest cold port stores in the world. The building was designed in the style of expressive functionalism. The structure has retained the same function from its inception to the present day.

History

On 11 June 1929, the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Marine Department, Port Department approved the construction of the port cold store according to a design by Ateliers B. Lebrun, Societe Anonyme, Nimy, Belgian company. The work was led by Engineer Rostkowski from Towarzystwa Robót Inżynierskich, S-ka Akcyjna in Poznań. The port cold store was built in two stages: a three-storey structure (consecrated by bishop Okoniewski on 13 July 1930) was erected in 1929-1930; the building was extended by three storeys in 1932-1934. After the extension, the building became the most modern and one of the largest cold stores in the world. Before the extension, it covered a cooling area of 10,000 m2, accommodated 700 cars of food, and was the fourth largest cold store of this type in Europe. After the extension, it covered a cooling area of 15,695 m2 and accommodated 1,100 cars.

It no longer has its original machine park and cooling system, but still serves its function.

Description

The cold store is located at the western end of the Polish Quay, on a separate plot of land. The six-storey building is complex, fragmented, and built on a rectangular floor plan. To the west, it adjoins a two-storey structure erected on a C-shaped floor plan, which is used for technical and administrative purposes. The wings of that structure form an inner yard, which is closed off to the west by two single-storey cubic guardhouses and a gate connecting them. The structure rests on Raymond’s stilts (5.5.-11 m in length). The cold store is a reinforced concrete structure; the exterior and interior walls are built of brick; the roof are flat and covered with tar paper. The brick façades are partitioned by plastered pilasters, which are spaced in the same way as the components of the reinforced concrete structure hidden in the interior. The structure is horizontally partitioned with a string-course cornice running around the whole building at the level of the fourth storey. The building of the cold store does not have any window openings. The northern façade has four steel unloading balconies. The central part of the west and east façade features blind windows with brick decorations. Originally, the interior could be accessed via two railway sidings; now only the southern one is visible.

The north façade of the administrative and technical building has nine axes, is pierced by an entrance (now a steel gate), and partitioned vertically by three brick pilasters. The western façade terminates in a brick attic; an entrance located in a shallow recess on the central axis is flanked by two pilasters. The northern axis of the façade features a row of window openings, whereas the southern axis is windowless.

The southern façade has eight axes and is pierced by two entrances in shallow recesses.

The eastern wing with an auxiliary utility room adjoining the cold store has seven axes and has an entrance in the northern corner.

The ground floor and second-storey level of the southern wing is partitioned vertically by window openings and massive pilasters. A rounded balcony rests on the pilasters to the south. The eastern part of the wing was occupied by a machine room and condenser, the western part by offices.

The building can only be viewed from the outside.

compiled by Dorota Hryszkiewicz-Kahlau, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Gdańsk, 31-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Sołtysik M.J., Gdynia miasto dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, urbanistyka i architektura, Warszawa 1993;
  • Sołtysik M.J., Modernistyczna Gdynia - dziedzictwo lat międzywojennych, [w:] Renowacje i zabytki 2010, nr 4 (36), s.60-73;
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa Chłodnia, Gdynia, Ewa Stieler, 1988;
  • Chłodnia i składy portowe w Gdyni, [w:] Tygodnik Mleczarski, nr 29, 16.07.1930, Poznań;
  • http://gdynia.fotopolska.eu/Gdynia/b65927,Chlodnia_Igloport.html

budynek d. magazynu tytoniowego
Gdynia

15 minuts

Long-Term Storage H
Gdynia

15 minuts

The storage facility is one of the most characteristic type of port buildings. It combines functionalism and constructivism. The structure has retained the same function from its inception to the present day.

History

The long-term storage was built in 1932.

Description

The historic building is located at the Polish Quay, on the south side of Polska Street, in the Port of Gdynia. It is a free-standing structure, situated on a separate plot, and built on a rectangular floor plan. It is compact and consists of five storeys with three avant-corps in the southern façade. As a port building, the storage facility has a very distinctive monolithic frame structure filled with bricks. This monolithic frame is clearly discernible from the outside and is the main element of articulation and decoration of all façades. The ceilings, floors and interior stairs are made of reinforced concrete. The roof is flat, made of reinforced concrete, and covered with roofing paper. The roof of the unloading ramps was made of reinforced glass, and the window opening infills were made of glass in steel.

The façades are axisymmetric. The longer north and south façade have a similar shape; the distinct horizontal articulation of the building was achieved by means of exposed structural components, roofed ramps, and crowning cornice. Vertical accents are three rows of windows extending along the entire height of the building. Seven axes of window openings are grouped in the central part, while three axes were grouped on both sides in fourth bays (from the corners of the building).

Window verticals provide additional illumination for staircases. These rows of windows in the southern façade jut out from the face and were additionally topped by glazed gables in the form of belvederes. The eastern and western façades were designed in a similar manner. The have seven axes and feature a glazed central bay. Window openings in all façades occupy the upper third structural part of the framework of each level of the building. The lower two-thirds are filled with bricks. The building is equipped with nine lifts.

The building can only be viewed from the outside.

compiled by Dorota Hryszkiewicz-Kahlau, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Gdańsk, 03-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Sołtysik M.J., Gdynia miasto dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, urbanistyka i architektura, Warszawa 1993;
  • Sołtysik M.J., Modernistyczna Gdynia - dziedzictwo lat międzywojennych, [w:] Renowacje i zabytki 2010, nr 4 (36), s.60-73;
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa Magazyn długoterminowy „H”, Gdynia, Ewa Stieler, 1988;
  • http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zabytki_Gdyni
  • http://gdynia.fotopolska.eu/Gdynia/b62481,Magazyn_dlugoterminowy__H.html

Grain Elevator at the Indian Quay of the Port
Gdynia

15 minuts

The grain elevator is an academic example of functional modernist industrial architecture. In the 1930s, it was an avant-garde technical solution and one of the most modern structures in Europe, and its distinctive shape is still a recognisable sign of the Port of Gdynia.

History

The grain elevator at the Indian Quay was built in 1936 and commissioned in October 1937. It was designed by Michał Paszkowski and Bolesław Szmidt. The building was owned by Spółka Eksploatacji Elewatorów Zbożowych w Polsce (Grain Elevator Operation Company in Poland) based in Gdynia. It was designed as a loading grain elevator that could serve as a warehouse during crop failures. It was fitted with machines for cleaning, sorting, ventilation, and pest control. It was designed in such a way as to enable tripling the capacity through extension without having to change the equipment. During the occupation, the elevator served as a warehouse for supplies for the German army. At the end of the ware, the basement was adapted to serve as a military hospital. After the war, the building was reconstructed. Initially, it was operated by “Społem”, then by Polskie Zakłady Zbożowe (Polish Grain Plants). In 1992, it was taken over by Bałtycki Terminal Zbożowy (Baltic Grain Terminal). In 1990, it was entered into the register of monuments.

Description

The industrial facility is located in the Port of Gdynia, the former Sea Trade Port, on the eastern edge of the Indian Quay, on a separate plot. The elevator was built on a rectangular floor plan. Its body consists of three sections and is compact. The middle part is a cuboidal eleven-storey tower (41 metres high), which incorporates a warehouse for cleaning and sorting grain and a staircase. The nine-storey side wings are intended to serve as storage facility with 45,000 cubic metres and a capacity of 10 thousand tonnes. The facility measured 66 metres by 21 metres. The façade of the ground floor was covered with dark red clinker tiles; the remaining parts of the walls with concrete tiles. The longitudinal northern and southern façades were designed in a similar manner. The ground floor has the form of a plinth and is separated from the upper storeys by a roof over the ramps. The eastern part of the elevator features evenly distributed window openings across the façade — 7 rows (storeys) with 8 openings in a row. The silo part is partitioned by five vertical pilasters. The part has only three window openings which were positioned vertically in the outermost row at the junction with the central tower part of the elevator, which is glazed over the entire height of the façade in a way to provide contrast. Six rows of small windows arranged in a strip-like pattern are separated from each other by pilasters serving as jambs. Both lower parts of the building are crowned with a storey set further back from the face. The storey has eight round windows in the eastern part and three rectangular windows in the western part (silo). The interior has retained both functional and formal partitions imposed by the forms of solids.

Limited access to the monument. The building is located in the port area. Viewing of the elevator is only possible with a guide at a specific time and date.

compiled by Dorota Hryszkiewicz-Kahlau, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Gdańsk, 23-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Sołtysik M.J., Gdynia miasto dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, urbanistyka i architektura, Warszawa 1993;
  • Sołtysik M.J., Modernistyczna Gdynia - dziedzictwo lat międzywojennych, [w:] Renowacje i zabytki 2010, nr 4 (36), s.60-73;
  • http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elewator_zbożowy_w_Gdyni
  • http://www.naszagdynia.com/port/elewator-zbozowy
  • Karta ewidencyjna Elewator Zbożowy Gdynia, autor: Ewa Stieler, 1988 r.; archiwum NID

Passenger Terminal
Gdynia

15 minuts

The Passenger Terminal is a valuable example of a modernist public building. It represents a harmonious combination of the representative and storage function. The structure is subtly decorated. The modern passenger terminal in the Polish port of Gdynia is of great historical value. Now, it is a symbol and houses the Emigration Museum.

History

The Passenger Terminal was designed by the Katowice branch of a company based in Berlin, Dyckerhoff & Widmann, in 1932. The construction work was conducted by Skąpski, Wolski, Wiśniewski. The building was commissioned on 8 December 1933. The port and passenger terminal were solemnly consecrated by bishop Okoniewski. The ceremony was attended by, among others, Ferdynand Zarzycki, Ministry of Industry and Trade, and ministers: Józef Beck, Emil Kaliński, Bronisław Nakoniecznikow-Klukowski, Władysław Marian Zawadzki, Kazimierz Papée and General Gustaw Orlicz-Dreszer. The terminal was a base for the transatlantic passenger carrier “G-A-L”, which handled the New York and South American lines. The structure covered an area of 2.5 thousand m2 and was equipped with all the equipment needed to load and unload passengers; it had a railway siding with tracks installed on both sides of the building, which was intended to handle emigrant traffic, and a transit warehouse. In the interwar period, the building housed Sunday services for the employees of the port and GUM in Gdynia and was used as a venue for our New Year's Eve celebrations. During World War 2, the passenger terminal was adapted for use as offices. At the beginning of the occupation of Gdynia, on 14 September 1939, Polish symbols, including relief eagles and commemorative plaques, were removed from the front façade of the terminal. On 9 October 1943, during the Allied bombing of the port, part of the passenger hall, i.e., the north-western corner and wall facing the French Quay, were destroyed. This was repaired temporarily, since it proved impossible to install reinforced structural components in the original shape and restore the original body of the building because of the destruction of the foundations of part of the building. The left upper corner of the building was not restored. The terminal hall was missing a gallery on the left side of the entrance and the asymmetry of the other elements of the décor and structure of the building. After the war, the building housed the Harbour’s Master’s Office and a postal and telegraph office, among others. At that time, the Passenger Terminal did not serve its basic function because of the political situation. Passenger traffic was resumed in the second half of the 1950s. During the 1970s, in addition to the facilities for passenger service, the building house the Department of Shipping Services of the Port of Gdynia Authority, Customs Office, Gdynia 18 Postal and Telecommunications Office, Maritime Agency Port Office, office of C. Hartwig company, and PKP’s shipping department.

Since the suspension of all transatlantic liner shipping movements by Polish ship-owners in 1987, the Passenger Terminal ceased to serve its original function and became an office building for port institutions and companies, and part of the transit warehouse started to be used as a storage facility.

In 2005, the SEBTrans-Link project was completed to prepare the concept of revitalisation of the Passenger Terminal. Cruise ships which more and more often call at the Port of Gdynia currently use the Dutch Quay and French Quay (located on both sides of the Passenger Terminal) as a berth in the port.

Since June 2009, the building houses the office of clearance for the ferry service to Helsinki and Travemünde of Finnish shipowner Finnlines.

In the middle of 2015, the building was adapted for use as the Emigration Museum of the Passenger Terminal. The museum will assemble and present collections on the history of Polish emigration.

Description

The Passenger Terminal in Gdynia is located at the French Quay of the Port of Gdynia, at Witolda Gombrowicza Square, in the vicinity of the office of the Harbour Master’s Office and the Monument to the People of the Sea. The building consists of two parts, is compact, and built on a rectangular floor plan. It is composed of the terminal hall and transit warehouse. The main hall called the “Passenger Hall” (situated on the west side) has three storeys; originally, it was covered with a thin-walled quadrangle reinforced concrete cupola (“Zeiss-Dywidag”) topped with a pyramidal skylight. The terminal hall housed ticket counters, information desk, postal office, luggage storage, restaurant, waiting room, and doctor’s offices. To the west, it adjoins the transit warehouse, which is a two-storey reinforced concrete frame structure. The upper storey is covered with a ten-span arched roof; originally, it was used as a hallway; the lower storey was adapted for use as a luggage storage. The front (west) façade of the terminal hall features wide windowless corners, which vertically cover two upper glazed storeys. This part of the façade is partitioned by pillars positioned between the windows and extended beyond the edge of the crowning cornice. The ground floor was horizontally separate with a massive roof and accentuated with the stairs along the whole width of the front façade. The north and south façades were originally identical, arranged horizontally in the form of three rows of narrow windows, with the ground floor separated from the upper parts by a roof over the ramps. The vertical shallow bays with masts projecting beyond the roof surface were the dominant feature of the western corners. After the damage caused during World War 2, the south-western corner was not reconstructed. The eastern part, i.e., the transit warehouse, features a clearly discernible frame structure, which can be seen in the longitudinal façades, and a row of windows under the upper ende of the ground floor storey. The face of the upper storey was set back, which allowed to create a gallery terminating in a staircase in the north-eastern corner. The interior has the form of a central hall surrounded by a gallery which can be accessed via spectacular stairs. The renovation and adaptation of the building for use as the Emigration Museum began in May 2013. The removed relief eagles were attached to the front façade. At the same time, the south-western façade underwent alterations; the existing structure was replaced with a glass pane. The alterations also involved the construction of the steel structure of a glazed tunnel running from the Transit Warehouse, which was an original viewpoint.

The site is accessible to visitors during the opening hours of the Emigration Museum.

compiled by Dorota Hryszkiewicz-Kahlau, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Gdańsk, 06-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Gosk A., Muzeum Emigracji [w:] Renowacje i zabytki 2010, nr 4 (36), s.132-134;
  • Sołtysik M.J., Gdynia miasto dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, urbanistyka i architektura, Warszawa 1993;
  • Sołtysik M.J., Modernistyczna Gdynia - dziedzictwo lat międzywojennych, [w:] Renowacje i zabytki 2010, nr 4 (36), s.60-73;
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa Dworzec Morski, Gdynia, Ewa Stieler, 1988;
  • http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dworzec_Morski_w_Gdyni
  • http://muzeumemigracji.pl/dworzec-morski/

dom
Gdynia

15 minuts

klasztor Zgromadzenia ss. Miłosierdzia św. Wincentego a Paulo
Gdynia

15 minuts

Gdynia - Historic Urban Layout of the City Centre
Gdynia

15 minuts

On 10 February 1920, General Józef Haller threw a ring into water of the Bay of Puck - a gesture intended as a symbol of the marriage between the Republic of Poland and the sea. This fact served to reaffirm the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles under which Poland took control over a 147-kilometre section of the coast. Gdańsk, together with its port infrastructure, remained outside the border and, as the Free City of Gdańsk, remained under thesupervision of the League of Nations. Dominated by the Germans, it was precluded from becoming a Polish maritime trading centre. Arguments for the construction of a new port also included numerous economic reasons e.g. possibility of bypassing the border barriers imposed by the neighbouring countries.

The choice fell on the region of the village of Gdynia, located at the mouth of the River Chylonka, where appropriate depth of the bay made it possible for ships to approach the coast, while the presence of a railway line ensured that goods could be transported to and from other locations in Poland. On 1 November, 1920, the Polish Economic Committee to the Council of Ministers granted an amount of 40 million marks to the Ministry of Military Affairs to construct a temporary military port and shelters for fishermen in Gdynia. Meanwhile, engineer Tadeusz Wenda started his work on the design of a commercial port capable of accommodating ocean-going ships. Works began in the spring of 1921. On 23 September 1922, the Legislative Sejm stated that the construction of the permanent port in Gdynia was one of the most significant tasks for the country. The works commenced in 1925; however, it was only in 1926 that they gathered momentum, as the position of the minister of industry and trade was taken over by Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, an engineer.

During the same year, the construction of the city started to the south of the port. The plan for the city centre were drawn up on the basis of designs by Adam Kuncewicz and Roman Feliński, an urban planner from Lviv, who decided that the maritime “façade” of Poland - as Gdynia was called at the time - would be modelled on a sequence of squares in Nancy from the era of Stanisław Leszczyński. 10 Lutego street - together with an elongated square at its end, known as Kościuszki square - was to be the monumental axis of the plan. In 1936, after the completion of the Southern Pier which formed an extension of the said axis, the construction of a Grand District opening towards the sea also became a possibility, although the project was not finalised due to the outbreak of the World War II. The city centre, the construction of which was halted in 1939, features a unique urban layout, symbolically emphasising the link between Gdynia and the Baltic Sea.

The buildings comprising the centre originate mainly from the inter-war period; examples include the building of the Bank of Poland (1929) and the neo-Baroque church of the Blessed Virgin Mary - the Queen of Poland (1924-1927). However, it is Modernism that remains the dominant style in the area in question; the tenement houses from the 1930s in Świętojańska street, for example, are among the most interesting examples of this style anywhere in Poland. Some of the buildings in the city centre exemplify the then-popular tendency towards grand architectural forms (an example of this trend is the Cotton House, designed by W. Tomaszewski and erected in 1938); other buildings remain true to the Art Deco style (for example the building of the Meteorology Institute, designed by T. Doberski and W. Tomaszewski, 1927-1929). Maria Jolanta Sołtysik, a researcher examining the topic of Gdynia architecture, stated that the mid-1930s saw the rise in popularity of a luxurious variety of functionalism which combined modernity with elegance, attention to detail and opulent fittings, coupled with plentiful references to the design of modern ships. Outstanding examples of this trend include the office building of the Office Workers Insurance Institution (designed by R. Piotrowski, 1934) and the residential building of the Pension Fund of the Bank of National Economy (Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego), designed by S. Ziołowski (1935-1937). The architecture of these buildings was international in character and took inspiration from designs of the most eminent European architects such as, for example, Erich Mendelsohn.

During that period, Gdynia became a place that attracted many distinguished architects. Apart from those already referred to above, one should mention K. Jakimowicz, who designed the former building of the Bank of National Economy (1928-1929) and Z. Karpiński, the designer of the Courthouse (designed in cooperation with T. Sieczkowski and R. Sołtyński, 1936).

Within several years, Gdynia was transformed from a fishing village into a thriving city. It obtained an official city status and saw a period of rapid development. With the passing of time, it became a significant Baltic port and a serious competitor for Gdańsk. During the brief interwar period, the Republic of Poland made a tremendous effort to create its own maritime policy and has subsequently managed to ensure its successful implementation. The very fact that Polish citizens - who had lived for centuries without caring much for the sea and the issues surrounding it - now became interested with sea travel, the navy and the national ensign was a great success in itself. Meanwhile, the city of Gdynia became a symbol of modernity - a status which it continues to enjoy even today.

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