The Pod Madonną (Under the Virgin Mary) patrician tenement house, otherwise known as the Soltan family tenement house, currently serving as the B. Morando State Secondary School of Fine Arts, Zamość
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The Pod Madonną (Under the Virgin Mary) patrician tenement house, otherwise known as the Soltan family tenement house, currently serving as the B. Morando State Secondary School of Fine Arts

Zamość

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An outstanding example of patrician architecture of the 17th century, this house - one of the so-called Armenian tenement houses, is located in the part of the town which had originally been allocated to Armenian residents by the founder of the town itself - Jan Zamoyski. Its front façade is adorned by Mannerist decorations in remarkably vibrant colours, truly outstanding in terms of artistic value - with particular emphasis on the relief depicting the Virgin Mary with Child, trampling down upon a fantasy dragon-like creature.

History

The tenement house was erected in the first half of the 17th century, with the construction works being completed in 1642. Initially the property of the Armenian Migderowicz family, in years 1642-1743 it belonged to the Sachwelowicz family (including the man known as Soltan), while during the 18th century it remained in the hands of the Takiesowicz, Derbedroszewicz and Skibiński families. In the 19th century, the house remained in the hands of the Skibiński and Namysłowski families. In 1901, the building was under the administration of the Savings and Loans Association; later on, the tenement house remained the property of various Jewish owners right until World War II. In the years 1945-63, the tenement house was the property of the Korzeniowski family and of a certain Mr Baranowski; after that, the house was taken over by the state. Initially a two-storey structure, it was subsequently extended in years 1743-1770. In 1898, the house underwent renovation works and was extended upwards at the expense of its decorative roof parapet. The first serious attempt at restoration was made in the years 1937-38 under the supervision of T. Zaremba. In 1978, the building was gutted by fire. A thorough restoration which involved a full set of conservation works, conducted on the basis of the design prepared by A. Kadłuczko and M.B. Pawlicki, took place in the years 1979-1989 and included, among others, the restoration of the decorative roof parapet. In 2001, the renovation works were completed, with the building being taken over by the State Secondary School of Fine Arts in Zamość.

Description

A patrician tenement house designed in the Late Renaissance style, located in the central part of the Old Town (or in the north-eastern corner thereof, to be exact), forming part of the northern Great Market Square frontage. The names given to the building are a reference to its former owners - the Soltan family - as well as to the relief on the front façade which depicts the Virgin Mary. The building is an oriented structure, its front (southern) façade facing the market square. Towards the east and west, the building abuts the neighbouring tenement houses. It is designed on an elongated rectangular floor plan, with a triple arcade in the ground floor section, its interior following a four-bay, two-part layout with a vestibule positioned on the axial line. The building is made of brick, its façades covered with plaster. It is a two-storey structure with a basement, covered with a gable roof concealed behind a decorative roof parapet set atop a tall plinth, rising above the front façade. The roof is covered with copper sheets. The covered space behind the arcade features a groin vault, with barrel vaulting being used for the basements. The ground floor and first floor rooms all feature flat ceilings. The windows and doors are made of wood. The front and rear façades follow a two-storey, three-axial design. The front façade features a triple arcade on the ground floor level and a decorative roof parapet (attic) at the top. The main entrance in the front part of the house, positioned on the middle axis, are adorned with a decorative portal with a transom light in the form of a horizontally positioned rectangle. The side axes of the ground floor level feature large windows with profiled surrounds made of sandstone, supported by massive stone sills. On the first floor level, the façade design takes a turn for the asymmetrical. Above the arcade runs a broad frieze framed by a pair of cornices, adorned with a foliate scrollwork. The first floor windows are rectangular in shape and feature sumptuously decorated surrounds. Above the windows run ornate cornices above which one can admire decorative heraldic cartouches, each carrying the “SS” monogram - the initials of Soltan Sachwelowicz, an Armenian merchant, owner of the tenement house and, it is believed, the man who provided the funds for its construction in the first place. The escutcheons are flanked with a bevy of decorative motifs, namely conchs, fruit and foliate scrollwork. A relief portraying the Virgin Mary with Child trampling upon a dragon can be seen between the middle and the eastern window. Above the pronounced crowning cornice rises the plinth supporting the tall roof parapet, following a symmetrical design and partitioned with pilasters and semi-circular niches, their top sections sculpted to resemble a conch. The roof parapet itself consists of segments of volutes, finials and obelisks. The façade features a yellow colour scheme, with the arcade on the ground floor level being painted white. The plasterwork decorations are painted in vibrant colours, allowing them to stand out against the background.

Limited access to the historic building. The interiors can be visited upon prior arrangement.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Baranowska Z., Sygietyńska H., Kamienice rynku zamojskiego w XVII wieku, /in:/ Zamość i Zamojszczyzna w dziejach i kulturze polskiej, Zamość 1969
  • Czterysta lat Zamościa, J. Kowalczyk (ed.), Wrocław-Łódź 198
  • Fidecka U., Kamienice ormiańskie w Zamościu, Zamość 1989
  • Herbst S., Zamość, Warsaw 1954
  • Record sheet, The “Pod Madonną” tenement house. The “Sołtanowska” tenement house (...). Zamość, compiled by J. Serafinowicz, B. Seniuk, 1997, Archive of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Lublin, Zamość Branch; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Kędziora A., Dawna architektura i budownictwo Zamościa, Zamość 1990
  • Pawlicki M. B., Kamienice ormiańskie w Zamościu, /in:/ Zamość miasto idealne, J. Kowalczyk (ed.), Lublin 1980
  • Pawlicki M. B., Kamienice mieszczańskie Zamościa. Problemy ochrony, Cracow 1999.
  • Zarębska T., Zamość - miasto idealne i jego realizacja, /in:/ Zamość miasto idealne, J. Kowalczyk (ed.), Lublin 1980

General information

  • Type: tenement house
  • Chronology: 1642
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Ormiańska 22, Zamość
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district Zamość, commune Zamość
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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