The Pod Aniołem (Under the Angel), Pod Lwami (Under the Lions), Pod Świętą Małgorzatą (Under St Margaret) tenement house, also known as the Bartoszewiczowska tenement house (Bartoszewicz family tenement house), Zamość
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The Pod Aniołem (Under the Angel), Pod Lwami (Under the Lions), Pod Świętą Małgorzatą (Under St Margaret) tenement house, also known as the Bartoszewiczowska tenement house (Bartoszewicz family tenement house)

Zamość

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An outstanding example of patrician architecture of the 17th century, this house - one of the so-called Armenian tenement houses, is located in the part of the town which had originally been allocated to Armenian residents by the founder of the town itself - Jan Zamoyski. Its front façade features Mannerist decorations of extraordinary artistic value. The interior décor is likewise exceptional, with its beamed ceilings with painted friezes and its decorative stone window surrounds. Today, it remains both the best-preserved and the most lavishly decorated among the so-called Armenian tenement houses.

History

The tenement house was originally erected during the first quarter of the 17th century (J. Kowalczyk believes its construction to have taken place in years 1632-34). Initially, it remained the property of a man called Bartosz, an Armenian, who later bequeathed it to his son Gabriel. The tenement house remained in the hands of the Bartoszewicz family until the late 17th century; during the 18th century, it belonged to the Doroszewski and Rosołowski families, while during the 20th century it was in the hands of the Bluzer family. Initially designed as a single-storey structure, it was extended upwards during the third quarter of the 17th century. In years 1752-1775, the decorative roof parapet was dismantled to make space for another storey. The building was restored on numerous occasions. The first serious attempt at restoration was made in the years 1937-38 under the supervision of T. Zaremba. Following restoration and adaptation of the interiors in years 1940-45, in 1945, the tenement house was acquired by the museum. In 1957, the roof cladding, window and joinery and exterior plasterwork were all subjected to renovation works. The wall paintings were restored in years 1964-1965. A thorough restoration which involved a full set of conservation works, conducted on the basis of the design prepared by A. Kadłuczko and M.B. Pawlicki, took place in the years 1979-1989 and included, among others, the restoration of the decorative roof parapet. The most recent renovation works, performed in 2007, involved the restoration of the wooden elements of façade. Today, the entire building continues to serve as the Zamość City Museum.

Description

A patrician tenement house designed in the Late Renaissance style, located in the central part of the Old Town, forming part of the northern Great Market Square frontage. The names given to the building are a reference to its former owners - the Bartoszewicz family - as well as to the various artistic representations in bas-relief which adorn its façade. The building is an oriented structure, its front (southern) façade facing the market square. Towards the east and the west, the building abuts the neighbouring tenement houses. It was designed on an elongated rectangular floor plan, with a triple arcade in the ground floor section. The interior follows a three-bay layout, with the third bay being divided into two distinct sections. A vestibule is positioned on the middle axial line of the building. The first and second floor layout are similar to that of the ground floor. The building is made of brick, its façades covered with plaster. It is a three-storey structure with a basement, covered with a gable roof concealed behind a decorative roof parapet rising above the front façade. The roof is covered with copper sheets. The covered space behind the arcade features a groin vault, with barrel or double barrel vaulting being used for some of the basements as well as some of the ground floor and first floor rooms. All remaining interiors, including all on the second floor, feature flat ceilings. The windows and doors are made of wood. The floors in the basement and on the ground floor are covered with stone or concrete tiles, with the floors on the first and second floor being made of wood (parquet flooring). The building also features a wooden staircase. The façades follow a three-storey, asymmetrical design. The front façade features a triple arcade on the ground floor level and a decorative roof parapet (attic) at the top. Both the front and the rear façade follows a three-axial design. The front façade is exceptional due to the use of Late Renaissance stucco decorations, string courses and bas-reliefs, incorporating various stylised and oriental motifs. The windows are rectangular in shape, with the second floor windows being larger than the others; all windows feature decorative surrounds, most of them adorned with foliate scrollwork. Between the windows on the first floor one may admire the emblem of the tenement house - the bas-relief of Archangel Gabriel holding a lily, set inside a shallow niche. The wall of the second floor which had originally formed the lower part of the roof parapet is adorned with lions positioned in the outermost sections of the façade as well as a fanciful rendition of a dragon in the middle, set against the background of acanthus leaves. The ground floor section features an arcaded walkway with semi-circular arches interconnected by decorative keystones adorned with foliate motifs, with massive cornices running directly above. The rear façade is devoid of decorative flourishes of any kind. Both façades present a uniform, brownish-red colour scheme, with the ground floor arcade being painted white. The main entrance in the front part of the house, positioned on the middle axis, are adorned with a decorative portal with a transom light protected by metal grillwork, topped with a wooden cartouche incorporating the portrayal of St George the Archangel. On the ground floor, in the grand hall in the rear part of the house, there is an original stone portal; the room also features a reconstructed wooden beamed ceiling, with one of the polychromed beams (known as the crossbeam) featuring an inscription which reads, “A.D. 1634”. The reveals of a double window divided by a Doric engaged column feature a sculpted decoration with the motifs of vines, cherub heads and rosettes. On the first floor, in the grand hall found in the front section of the house, one may admire identical stonework decorations of around the windows as well as a painted frieze. The wooden beamed ceiling is a modern replica of the original. Inside the corner extension there is a beamed ceiling which some believe to be an authentic part of the original structure. On the second floor there is a kitchen with an open hearth (the so-called Armenian kitchen or black kitchen, the latter name being a generic designation of all open-hearth designs of this kind), featuring a vaulted ceiling made of brick.

Limited access to the historic building. The interiors can be visited during the museum opening hours or upon prior arrangement.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Baranowska Z., Sygietyńska H., Kamienice rynku zamojskiego w XVII wieku, /in:/ Zamość i Zamojszczyzna w dziejach i kulturze polskiej, Zamość 1969.
  • Czterysta lat Zamościa, J. Kowalczyk (ed.), Wrocław-Łódź 1983
  • Fidecka U., Kamienice ormiańskie w Zamościu, Zamość 1989
  • Herbst S., Zamość, Warsaw 1954
  • Record sheet, The “Pod Aniołem” tenement house. The “Pod Lwami”, “Pod św. Małgorzatą” , “Bartoszewiczowska” tenement house (...). Zamość, compiled by J. Serafinowicz, B. Seniuk, 1997, Archive of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Lublin, Zamość Branch; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Kędziora A., Dawna architektura i budownictwo Zamościa, Zamość 1990
  • Pawlicki M. B., Kamienice ormiańskie w Zamościu, /in:/ Zamość miasto idealne, J. Kowalczyk (ed.), Lublin 1980
  • Pawlicki M. B., Kamienice mieszczańskie Zamościa. Problemy ochrony, Cracow 1999.
  • Zarębska T., Zamość - miasto idealne i jego realizacja, /in:/ Zamość miasto idealne, J. Kowalczyk (ed.), Lublin 1980

General information

  • Type: tenement house
  • Chronology: 1 ćw. XVII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Ormiańska 26, Zamość
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district Zamość, commune Zamość
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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