Catholic Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Wyszyna
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Catholic Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Wyszyna

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The Baroque Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Wyszyna is one of the most beautiful wooden churches in Greater Poland. The unique shape of its main body and roof make it an example of wooden architecture exceptional on a national scale.

History

The village of Wyszyna was mentioned in written records for the first time in 1394. Originally, the village was one of the estates of the Gniezno Archdiocese. The parish was mentioned in written sources dating from 1379 in connection with the consecration of the first local church by the Płock bishop Jakub Dryja Grodzicki. Starting from the 16th century, the village was owned by members of the nobility, and the church was converted into a Protestant church by the contemporary owner of the village, Jan Grodzicki. The local parish was dissolved. During that period, the Catholic inhabitants of the village attended a church in Tuliszków, located 11 km away from Wyszyna. Church records from the 17th century describe the church in Wyszyna as desecrated, falling into ruin, remaining in the hands of infidels, and deprived of a parish-priest for a long time. Visitation records from 1766 describe the church as a building having a floor plan in the shape of a cross, whereas later documents of this type, dating from 1775, state that it had fallen into ruin due to its old age. Eventually, the church was destroyed during the period of the Bar Confederation, when Russian troops raided the Wyszyna estate and demolished the local castle. The present church, dedicated to the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was erected in 1782. It was founded by Rafał Gurowski, Castellan of Przemęt. In the late 18th century, a brick bell tower was constructed near the church. The sacristy was renovated in 1903, the porch was renovated a year later, and the Chapel of St Joseph, adjoining the church, was reconstructed in 1909. During World War II, the Germans robbed the church of three chalices, a monstrance, a pyx, altar candlesticks, chasubles, copes, and three bells. The church was renovated in the years 1956-1957. In 1981, its walls were covered with larch weatherboards.

Description

The village of Wyszyna is located 14 km to the south-east of Turek. The Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, built on a hexadecagonal floor plan, has a wooden log structure. It is oriented towards the east. The main body of the church is covered with a unique bell-shaped roof surmounted by a steeple with a lantern. It is adjoined by a sacristy, a porch, and the Chapel of St Joseph, all of which have a hexagonal floor plan and are topped with separate polygonal tented roofs, covered with wood shingles. At the wall corners, both inside and outside, there are vertical supports in the form of engaged columns with carved capitals. The uniformly Rococo fittings of the church date from the time of its construction. Inside, there is a flat ceiling adorned with carved images of the Eye of Providence and three angels with symbols of the cardinal virtues. The church has an overhanging music gallery with a pipe organ. It is enclosed with a parapet adorned with a painting of the White Eagle (the coat of arms of Poland) and the Wczele and Abdank coats of arms, used by Rafał Gurowski and his wife Ludwika née Tworzyjański, respectively.

The entrances to the Chapel of St Joseph and the porch are framed by portals whose lintels incorporate Rococo cartouches crowned with a papal tiara and a bishop mitre. Above the sacristy door and the blind door in the south-east wall, there are curved vases with angels flying over them. In the wall corners, there are zacheuszkas (cross-shaped candlesticks marking the places where holy oil was applied during the church consecration). The dominant element of the interior is the main altar with an 18th-century painting of Our Lady of the Scapular, regarded as having miraculous properties.

The Late-Baroque, arcaded bell tower has a triangular floor plan with “cut-off” corners. It is made of brick. Its high wall base is adorned with a cartouche incorporating an inscription commemorating the foundation of the church and the coat of arms of its founders. The circular church yard is enclosed with a fence.

The church can only be visited from the outside.

compiled by Tomasz Łuczak, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 16-11-2015.

Bibliography

  • Diecezja włocławska 2000, red. W. Frątczak, W. Kujawski, A. Poniński, K. Rulka, L. Urbański, Włocławek 2001, s. 335.
  • Makary Górzyński, Zabytki miasta Turku i powiatu tureckiego, t. 2, cz. 2, Architektura i sztuka sakralna, Turek 2014.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. 5, Woj. wielkopolskie, red. Ruszczyńska Teresa, Sławska Aniela, z. 26, Pow. turecki, opr. I. Galicka I., Kaczorowska I., Sygietyńska H., Warszawa 1959, s. 25-26.
  • Kościoły drewniane w Wielkopolsce, red. Mariusz Grzebalski, Poznań 2004, s. 285.
  • Piotr Maluśkiewicz, Województwo konińskie. Szkic monograficzny, Warszawa-Poznań 1983, s. 332-336.
  • Piotr Maluśkiewicz, Ziemia konińska. Przewodnik turystyczny, Konin 2002, s. 170-172.
  • Wielkopolska. Słownik krajoznawczy, red. Łęcki Włodzimierz, Poznań 2002, s. 408.
  • http://kosciolydrewniane.pl - odsłona z listopada 2015 r.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1782 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Rafała Gurowskiego 1, Wyszyna
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district turecki, commune Władysławów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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