World War I cemetery no. 11 - Zabytek.pl
woj. podkarpackie, pow. jasielski, gm. Dębowiec
It serves to commemorate the dramatic events of World War I. It is one of the most interesting war cemeteries in the “Żmigród” First Grave District.
War Cemetery No. 11 in Wola Cieklińska was built in years 1916 by the War Graves Department of the Imperial and Royal Military Command in Cracow. The cemetery was designed by renowned Slovakian architect Dušan Jurkovič. It was built at the site formerly occupied by Russian field fortifications erected in the early 1915. It was the third and the last line of defence of the Russians, where, among others, the military reserves of the 3rd Caucasian Army Corps were stationed. It was the site of fierce battles during the so-called battle of Wola Cieklińska (4-5.05.1915), when the troops of the German Corps of General Paul von Kneussel finally broke the Russian front. The cemetery serves as the final resting place for soldiers exhumed from various battlefields, who lost their lives during the clashes for the control of the Carpathian mountain passes, which took place in winter 1914/1915, as well as during the counteroffensive aimed at freeing the Fortress of Przemyśl, which was besieged by the Russians at the time. The cemetery contains graves of 22 Austro-Hungarian soldiers from the 27th Landwehr Infantry Regiment from Ljubljana and Trieste, 7th Landwehr Infantry Regiment from Pilzno, Beroun and Pisek, 77th Infantry Regiment from Przemyśl, and 14th sapper battalion; 48 German soldiers from the 46th Prussian Infantry Regiment from Poznań and Września, 47th Prussian Infantry Regiment from Poznań and Śrem, 58th Prussian Infantry Regiment from Głogów and Wschowa, 79th Prussian Infantry Regiment from Hildesheim, 97th Prussian Infantry Regiment from Saarburg, 3rd Bavarian Infantry Regiment from Augsburg, 13th Bavarian Infantry Regiment from Ingolstadt and Eichstätt, 22nd Bavarian Infantry Regiment from Zweibrücken and Saargmünd, 46th Field Artillery Regiment from Wolffenbüttel and Celle; and 44 Russian soldieries from unknown units. In 1991-1995, the cemetery was renovated through the efforts of the Commune of Dębowiec; the renovation was financed by the German War Graves Commission (VDK) in Kassel. The Commune of Dębowiec continues to carry out routine repairs.
The cemetery is set on a small hill, in front of a forested mountain slope, about 200 m from voivodeship road no. 993 from Dukla to Gorlice, about 1 km from the intersection with the road from Folusz to Dębowiec.
The cemetery covers an area of 0.05 ha.
It is set on a plan of two interlocking circles formed by circular terraces surrounded by a fence made of ashlars, topped with a concrete roof. The area of the cemetery can be accessed via four stone steps arranged in a fan shape, framed by stone walls, positioned on gentle arches, topped with circular arches. The stairs lead to the monumental gate in the form of a large stone arch placed on the axis of the complex. The gate is used to access the area of a smaller terrace located at a lower level. The gate symbolises the transition from the world of the living to the world of the dead. The arch bears an inscription reading: “WIR ZOGEN ZUM STREIT UND WIR FANDEN FRIEDEN”, translated as “We came out to fight and we found peace”. The upper larger terrace can be accessed via three stone stairs. On both sides of the entrance, there are two tall round stone pylons. Each of the pylons narrows in steps upwards and is crowned with four circular columns supporting a pronounced capital, adorned with a foliate motif, and surmounted by a stylised openwork cross. The centre of the upper terrace is occupied by a stone mausoleum in the form of a rotunda, narrowing in steps upwards, covered with a concrete slab. The mausoleum was used as the burial site for two fallen officers of the German army, one soldier of the Austro-Hungarian army and one of the Russian army. In front of it, there is a large stone plaque topped with a tympanum lavishly decorated with foliate motifs. The plaque bears an inscription, the translation of which reads: “Here is the great fate of a warrior: To see the death as the highest reward by getting rid of one’s self and totally surrendering himself to the common good”. In the rear part of the mausoleum, there is a rectangular entrance to the interior. On both terraces, on the sections of the circles, there are graves framed by ashlars. The graves themselves are marked with stone pedestals topped with cast iron crucifixes, adorned with palmette decorations framing memorial plaques. All in all, the cemetery contains 56 individual graves as well as 7 mass graves, in which a total of 114 soldiers were interred, representing all of the armies which had once clashed in the surrounding area. The lower terrace features a single self-sown pine.
The cemetery is open to visitors all year round. It is located on the trail of the eastern front of World War I.
compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 18-08-2014.
- Broch r., Hauptmann H., Zachodniogalicyjskie groby bohaterów z lat wojny światowej 1914-1915, translated by Sznytka H., prepared by Drogomir J., Tarnów 1996.
- Bańkosz R., Frodyma R., Sapeta A., Szlak frontu wschodniego I wojny światowej - teksty tablic informacyjnych, prepared in 2012.
- Website: German army during World War I, http://www.armianiemiecka.tpf.pl/armia.htm (access date: 18.08.2014)
- Website: World War I cemeteries, http://www.cmentarze.gorlice.net.pl/ (access date: 18.08.2014)
- Website: Polish Online War Cemetery Database - World War I cemetery no. 11, http://groby.radaopwim.gov.pl/grob/10879/ (access date: 18.08.2014).
- Website: Österreich-Ungarns bewaffnete Macht 1900-1914, http://www.malorenz.at/index.htm (access date: 18.08.2014).
Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_18_CM.1615, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_18_CM.53313