Manor house complex, Ujazd
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The manor house complex in Ujazd near Grodzisk Wielkopolski is one of the old landed estates in Greater Poland. The manor house, located amid picturesque surroundings in the form of a landscape park and accompanied by a residential outbuilding and three gazebos, is an example of a Late-Baroque residence. It used to belong to the Żółtowskis, a patriotic Greater Poland family who rendered numerous services to the country.

History

The oldest historical information about Ujazd comes from 1280, when the village was the property of a Cisterian monastery in Obra. In c. 1500, Ujazd was owned by the Tader-Gryfit-Ujski family, and starting from 1580 — by Jakub, Stanisław, and Piotr Ujejski. In the 17th century, it became the property of the Rogaliński family. In the 1st half of the 18th century, the owner was Kasper Rogaliński of the Łodzia coat of arms from Dzwonowo. In 1784, Ujazd, along with Kowalewo and Lechowo, was purchased by Józef Żółtowski, and from then on, the estate was the property of the Żółtowski family. In 1927, the owner was Ludwika Bicker, Żółtowski by her first marriage.

The manor house was built in the 1st half of the 18th century by Kasper Rogaliński. It was extended in c. mid-19th century by Adam Żółtowski. A Neo-Gothic porch was added and the gable was modified then. Lower, one-storeyed wings (corner extensions) were added at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The next modification works were carried out in the 1950, when the building was being adapted to serve as a social welfare home.

The residential outbuilding, erected in the 1st half of the 19th century, was modified in the 2nd half of the 19th century and in 1945.

The complex includes three gazebos-pavilions from the mid-18th century, whose original purpose is unknown.

The landscape park, covering as area of 69 hectares, was established in the 18th century and modified in the late 19th century.

To the south of the manor house complex, there is a farm complex. It consists of two neighbouring yards with farm buildings on all sides and in the centre. A two-storeyed granary built in 1902 and a historic distillery from the 3rd quarter of the 19th century are particularly noteworthy.

Description

The manor house complex is situated to the west of a road connecting Grodzisk Wielkopolski and Kościan. It comprises a residential part and a farm part (laid out on both sides of a road leading to Grodzisk Wielkopolski). The complex is surrounded by a vast park.

The Late-Baroque manor house faces the west. In front of the residence, there is a large courtyard with a residential outbuilding on both sides. The east building was built in the 3rd quarter of the 18th century and the west building was fully reconstructed in 1950. Between the outbuilding and the manor house, in the wall surrounding the courtyard, there are three gazebos from the mid-18th century.

The extensive, one-storeyed manor house, featuring a large dormer in the centre of the front façade, is covered with a very tall säteri mansard roof, with small dormers of the attic set in the lower roof plane and attic windows set in the upper roof plane. The roof is covered with roof tiles. The side wings have flat roofs covered with roofing felt.

The manor house has a floor plan in the shape of an elongated rectangle with symetrically-added wings, slightly protruding on the south side, and a porch in front of the entrance. The wings and the central part have basements. The central part has barrel vaults with lunettes.

Originally, the manor house had a two-bay layout; currently, it has a two-and-a-half-bay layout, with a hall on the central axis of the first bay and a living room in the second bay. The stair layout in the hall was changed when the building was being adapted to contain a social welfare home. The façades are covered with plaster and decorated with original architectural details in the form of window surrounds and cornices.

The front façade is symmetrical and has 11 axes. In the centre, there is a porch with a balcony. At the corners, there are avant-corpses, each having two axes. The large wall dormer in the centre is topped with a triangular gable. The façade facing the garden has a similar design — it is symmetrical (12 axes), with a terrace in the centre and a four-axis wall dormer topped with a triangular gable and two annexes at the corners, each having two axes. Above the front and back façades, there are symmetrically-positioned wall dormers topped with concave-convex gables. Each of the side façades has four axes and is topped with a Neo-Baroque parapet decorated with small gables.

The residential outbuilding, built in the 3rd quarter of the 18th century, is situated to the south-east of the manor house. It has a floor plan in the shape of an elongated rectangle with annexes built at a later date on the north side. It is a one-storeyed building with an attic, topped with a mansard roof covered with roof tiles. The walls are made of brick and covered with plaster. The front and back façades have seven axes. The windows are positioned assymetrically. The windows, framed by surrounds, were installed during the 19th-century modification works. The roof features wooden wall dormers in the lower plane and bull-eye windows in the upper plane.

The three small pavilions, referred to as gazebos, were built in the mid-18th century. They are situated next to the manor house: two on the south side and one on the north side. Each of them has a square floor plan.

They are made of brick. Two gazebos have tall roofs of the pagoda-type, covered with roof tiles. The other one has an onion-shaped roof, originally covered with wood shingles, currently — with sheet metal. The façades of the pavilions are covered with plaster and decorated with crowning cornices and corner pilasters.

The huge park surrounding the manor house complex, having an area of approx. 69 hectares, still had some original features of its original regular layout from the 18th century. The park was enlarged and transformed into a picturesque landscape park by the Złotowskis in the late 19th century. The park is enclosed with a fence with two gates: one faces the road to Kowalewo and the other leads to the manor house. The southern part of the park passes into a forest on the north side. The main elements of the park layout are the Letnica Stream (a tributary of the Obra River) flowing across the whole park and a pond. By a bridge spanning the stream, nearby the park boundary, there is an obelisk from the late 18th century. There is a circular courtyard in front of the manor house. The original layout of paths has been partially preserved, with the main path running across the park form the north to the south. The park boasts a variety of trees, including London plane trees, pedunculate oaks, and small-leaved limes.

A particularly notable element of the complex is the distilley, built in the mid-19th century. It is situated in the south-western part of the farm yard located to the south of the manor house. Rectified spirit was produced in the building until 1947. In the 1960s, there were attempts at launching mineral water production and the interior of the distillery was modified.

Limited access. The complex is private property.

compiled by Radomiła Banach, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 10-12-2015.

Bibliography

  • Majątki Wielkopolskie, t. V, powiat kościański, Szreniawa 1996, s. 271-276
  • Katalog zabytków Sztuki, Ruszczyńska T., Sławska A. (red.), t. V, z. 10, dawny powiat kościański, s.109-110, Warszawa 1980.
 

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: 1. pol. XVIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Ujazd
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district grodziski, commune Kamieniec
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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