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Motte - Zabytek.pl


woj. mazowieckie, pow. przysuski, gm. Wieniawa-gmina wiejska

The motte in Romualdów is a valuable source of information about the medieval period and early modern feudal defensive seats in Poland.

Location and description

The motte, known as ‘The Swedish Trenches’ or ‘The Krajów Mountain’ is located about 830 m to the north-east of the centre of the village of Romualdów. It is surrounded by waterlogged meadows whose purpose was to prevent access to the motte.

The motte has the shape of a truncated cone surrounded by a moat. The earthen structure is around 40 m in diameter at the base and 4.5 m in height. The moat is up to 4 m wide. The motte is surrounded by meadows and arable land; the monument itself is now a wasteland.


A fortalice, which was later converted probably in a fortified residence, was owned by the Duninowie (Łabędzie) family. It could serve as a guardhouse or customs house on the route from Skrzynno, towards the north, to Pilica. The necessary facilities were at hand in the nearby village of Krajów. The 17th century saw the construction of a manor house on the site, which most likely became a fortified seat of a knight in Romualdów.

Based on the findings from archaeological research, G. Kotkowski dates the functioning of the fortalice to the second half of the 13th century - first half of the 14th century, and the wooden fortified manor house to the 16th/17th - 17th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The motte in Romualdów was known as early as the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, researchers attributed the site as belonging to the village of Krajów and it has been referred as the motte in Krajów in literature and conservation documentation to the present day. First surface surveys and inventory research were carried out in 1938. Trail excavations were conducted by G. Kotkowski forty years later. In 2001, the site was registered during the surface surveys carried out within the framework of the “Archaeological Picture of Poland” project.

In 1978, trail excavations were undertaken in the centre and on the edge of the conical earthen structure. Excavations of the site uncovered the remains of the wooden and earthen structure of the rampart, in which the space between individual layers was filled with clay, as well as few movable monuments from both phases of the functioning of the fortified settlement. Researchers also found that the construction of the manor house from the second phase was preceded by the raising of the earthen structure of the motte.

The motte is located in the area of land being private property, to the north of Romualdów between two streams. An unpaved road runs about 150 m to the south of the site.

Compiled by Agnieszka Oniszczuk, National Heritage Board of Poland, 13.10.2014 r.


  • Cieślak-Kopyt M. Micke I., Skubicha E., Twardowski W., Radomskie - alfabet wykopalisk. Przewodnik archeologiczny, Radom 2004, p. 79.
  • Gąssowski J., Cmentarzysko w Końskich na tle zagadnienia południowej granicy Mazowsza we wczesnym średniowieczu, [in:] Materiały wczesnośredniowieczne, vol. 2 (1950), Warsaw 1952, p. 93.
  • Gąssowski J., Kempisty A., Przewodnik archeologiczny po Polsce, Wrocław 1973, p. 38.
  • Nierychlewska A., Budownictwo obronne powiatu radomskiego w okresie od XIII do XVIII wieku, Radom 2002, pp. 165-167.

Category: hillfort

Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records

Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_A_14_AR.42645, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_14_AR.2009629