Palace complex, Przemyśl
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The complex, consisting of a palace and a park, constitutes a representational example of residential architecture of the region. It is distinctive for a picturesque, lavish form of the palace.

History

An extensive hunting ground was found in Bakończyce in the Middle Ages. The estate established in this area constituted a royal property until the first partitioning of Poland. In 1772 it was taken over by the Austrian government and sold to Ignacy Cetner. The Czartoryski family bought the estate with a manor farm, including a wooden manor house and small formal gardens, from the Cetner family and later sold it to Hieronim Lubomirski. Upon his initiative a palace was built in Bakończyce in the years 1885-1887 in place of the former manor house, to the design of Maksymilian Nitsch, a well-known architect based in Cracow. It was then the garden complex was altered as well, by significantly expanding it and introducing a free layout of paths instead of former formal quarters. The palace and park complex gained a character of a suburban residence. During the siege of the Fortress of Przemyśl, the palace in Bakończyce was damaged in the fire. The palace complex belonged to the Lubomirski family until the outbreak of World War II. During the war the palace was ravaged by Russian soldiers stationing there, followed by German troops. After the war the area was taken over by the agricultural technical school, which adapted the palace for didactic purposes in 1963. The park was largely altered at that time and the pond with an islet was partially dried up and backfilled. The current palace and park complex is used by the Eastern European School in Przemyśl; new didactic buildings belonging to the school have been located in the park.

Description

The palace complex is situated in the south-eastern part of Przemyśl, not far from the railway node Przemyśl-Bakończyce, on a relatively flat terrain. The park is limited in the south by Bakończycka Street, in the east by Nestor Street, the manor farm and new housing estate limit the park in the west and industrial areas in the north.

The eclectic palace was erected in the central part of the complex, on a low platform, with the main entrance in the north-western part of the complex. The palace is set on a rectangular floor plan, with fortified towers and corner extensions on four corners as well as avant-corps along every façade’s axis. Its fundamentally rectangular, two-storey corpus, resting on basements elevated above the terrain level, covered with a hip roof, is enclosed in the north by four-storey, polygonal towers covered with pyramid roofs; in the south it is enclosed by three-storey corner extensions with tented roofs and additionally diversified by an archway in the north; a semi-circular, two-storey avant-corps adjoins the corpus in the south, while in the east it is adjoined by a one-storey, rectangular avant-corps with a terrace; in the west it features a polygonal, two-storey avant-corps and additionally a slender, six-storey, cylindrical turret with a conical roof. The palace is made of stone and brick, the walls are covered with plaster on both sides and the roofs are clad with sheet metal.

The front, north façade is symmetrically arranged, with a two-storey, seven-axis corpus, where an archway on the ground floor is broken polygonally in the middle and covered with a terrace featuring a baluster. The central part with a rhythmical arrangement of windows is framed by taller towers. The axis is additionally accentuated by a contemporary dormer window. The south, garden façade is also symmetrically arranged; it has thirteen axes, two storeys and features two-storey corner extensions on the sides, whose axis is accentuated by a semi-circular avant-corps protruding from a rectangular avant-corps and an additional vertical accentuation in the form of a slender turret in the east. Short, two-storey east and west façades, with a similar disposition, were accentuated by avant-corps, framed by towers and corner extensions. A horizontal character of all façades is accentuated by a rusticated plinth, strips on the ground floor, a cornice between the storeys and pronounced crowning cornice on corbels. Façades are additionally embellished with triangular and semi-circular window headers resting on piers, window sills with panels, an archway at the front, a baluster of the terrace at the front and in the east, semi-circularly terminating windows framed by window surrounds with a keystone in the western avant-corps, as well as arcades resting on columns with Corinthian capitals in the semi-circular southern avant-corps.

Inside, an axial arrangement with a hall and a drawing room in the middle is clearly visible. Due to wartime destruction and subsequent renovations, the interior is devoid of original fittings.

A landscape park has been preserved in the surrounding area, planned in the 19th century upon expanded former formal gardens. In the mid- 20th century tree stands in the park were considerably reduced due to the location of military bases. In the 1950s subsequent cutting of trees took place, followed by the levelling-out of a viewing mound and drying-up of ponds. Despite these changes the park has preserved its picturesque character and represents a decent setting for the large, eclectic palace.

The historic monument is accessible. A higher education institution functions in the palace and the park.

compiled by Mieczysław Kuś, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 12-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Z. Wiglusz, J. Polaczek, Pałac Lubomirskich w Przemyślu, Przemyśl 2002
  • R. Aftanazy, Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczpospolitej, t. 8, Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków 1996, s. 9-13
  • Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Małopolsce i na Podkarpaciu, Poznań 2012, s. 360
  • Polakowski S. Pozostałości założeń dworskich województwa podkarpackiego, Krosno 2012, s. 303-304
  • J. Piórecki, Zabytkowe ogrody i parki województwa przemyskiego, Rzeszów 1989, s. 42-44

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1885-1887
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Tymona Terleckiego 6, Przemyśl
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district Przemyśl, commune Przemyśl
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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