Two villas with surrounding greenery - remnants of the Turczynek complex, Milanówek
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Two villas with surrounding greenery - remnants of the Turczynek complex

Milanówek

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The villa complex in Turczynek is an example of a suburban estate founded in the early 20th century for the financiers of Warsaw. Two villas, whose style is referred to as picturesque eclecticism, were erected around 1905 in the early modernist spirit, based on the design of Dawid Lande, an architect from Łódź.

History

The complex was established on a plot bought by financiers Wilhelm Wellisch and Jerzy Meyer, linked by marriage to the Toeplitz sisters. In the years 1904-1905 two villas, whose front façades face each other, were built along with separate complexes of utility buildings on the opposite edges of the estate. The villa (Turczynek A in parcel registers) belonged to W. Wellisch’s family, the other (Turczynek B) - to J. Meyer’s family. Both buildings were designed by Dawid Lande, an architect from Łódź. In 1911 W. Wellisch expanded the estate by additional land bought from peasants from Polesie village. In 1912, after W. Wellisch’s death, part of the real property was inherited by his wife Anna, who sold a part of the land to J. Meyer in 1919. During World War I the painter Leon Wyczółkowski lived in the Wellisch’s villa. Until the end of World War II Turczynek belonged to J. Meyer’s family and Anna Wellisch. During the occupation the villa was probably taken over by the Germans. In 1945 the estate and the land was occupied by the Red Army. In the 1950s the estate was officially confiscated and assigned to the training centre of the Polish Youth Association, while the former utility buildings were taken over by the accommodation office and transformed into flats. In the 1960s a specialist pulmonary hospital was located in the buildings. A morgue building that is situated in the park dates back to this period. From 1976 onwards a Pulmonary Diseases Ward of the Health Care Centre in Grodzisk Mazowiecki was located in the villas. Then, the buildings housed the Internal Diseases Ward. After the war, as a result of adapting the buildings to new functions, certain verandas and terraces were walled up and secondary partitions of the interior were introduced. Currently, the buildings are out of use, which has a profound impact on their condition.

Description

A villa, park and forest complex is located on the eastern edge of Milanówek, on a plot situated in a triangle between Królewska and Brwinowska Streets. It includes two villas standing approx. 50 metres from each other and located in the south-eastern part of the multi-hectare park complex. Two groups of historical utility buildings located in Brwinowska Street and on the corner of Królewska and Turczynek Streets constitute an integral part of the complex, although they have not been inscribed to the register of monuments.

The villas face each other with fronts; an oval flower bed is visible between them. Both buildings, similar in style, differ with a body plan and decor. The villas are made of brick, their walls are plastered and rusticated. They were founded on an irregular floor plan. The buildings have two storeys and a loft. The tall plinth includes visible basement windows. Picturesqueness of irregular bodies of each villa is enhanced by multi-pitched roofs clad with steel tiles, with a diversified line including numerous dormer windows, gables and cupolas of towers of different shapes, as well as tall chimneys. Asymmetrical façades have a diversified, stepped line formed by avant-corps, faux towers, balconies as well as terraces and wooden verandas, most of which were altered after the war. Decorative elements, found mainly around window and entrance openings, as well as ornamental gables refer to Gothic and Renaissance styles. Parts of the loft are distinguished by decorative elements of wattle-and-daub walls, protruding decorative floor beams and ornamental wooden corbels. Windows of different shape and size have original woodwork. The buildings’ interiors include particularly distinctive elements, such as two-storey-tall halls and stairs with a sculpted wooden balustrade. From the beginning, the buildings were equipped, among others, with district heating, electricity and sewage system. The area of the historic estate is overgrown with a neglected landscape park with specimens of monumental tree stands. In the south and west the park gives way to a forest. Only around the villas are the remnants of the garden complex with a fountain visible. An overgrown lime tree alley leading to an oval flower bed between the villas begins at an old brick gate at Brwinowska Street (located east of the current street).

The monument can be viewed from the outside.

Compiled by Małgorzata Laskowska-Adamowicz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, 31-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • [b. aut],Architektura Milanówka w rysunkach Katarzyny Chrudzimskiej, [b.m.w.] 1997, s.
  • Zapomniane miejsca Mazowsza II edycja [b.m.w.] 2014, s.100-101
  • Dwie wille w Turczynku, pod Brwinowem, "Przegląd Techniczny" nr. 45, 1905, tabl. XXV- XXVIII
  • Jerzy S. Majewski, Milanówek Turczynek Szpital Internistyczny w Milanówku Turczynku, Dokumentacja historyczno-architektoniczna wykonana na zlecenie SKZ w Warszawie,  Warszawa 1988; Archiwum NID
  • Opinia Działu Ekspertyz i Analiz KOBiDZ opracowana przez A. Radźwidzką-Milczewską i M. Warchoła dotycząca określenia granic ochrony konserwatorskiej i weryfikacji wpisu do rejestru zabytków dawnego założenia Turczynek w Milanówku z dn. 14.06.2006, Archiwum NID
  • Materiały przygotowywane dla Gminnej Ewidencji Zabytków Milanówka oprac. M. Laskowska -Adamowicz i E. Popławska-Bukało, 2008, Archiwum NID
  • Karta Ewidencyjna, Pawilon I, oprac. M. Ślizińska, Milanówek-Turczynek 1976, Archiwum NID.
  • Karta Ewidencyjna, Pawilon I, oprac. M. Ślizińska, Milanówek-Turczynek 1976, Archiwum NID.

General information

  • Type: villa
  • Chronology: 1904-1905
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Milanówek
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district grodziski, commune Milanówek
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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