Palace complex, Lubartów
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An example of a magnate’s residence with roots going all the way back to the 16th century, presenting an immense historical and artistic value for the entire region. The existing palace, designed in the Baroque style, was erected towards the end of the 17th century for the Lubomirski family, based on a design by the renowned architect Tylman van Gameren. In years 1722 -1741, the complex was rebuilt and extended at the request of its erstwhile owners - the Sanguszko family, with another well-known architect - Paweł Antoni Fontana - being responsible for the design. The palace was later redesigned once again during the 1830s.

History

The town of Lubartów, formerly known as Lewartów, was originally founded back in 1543. The very first magnate’s residence to be constructed here was the impressive fortified manor (castle) which appeared somewhere around the mid-16th century and belonged to Piotr Firlej of the Lewart coat of arms, the voivode of Lublin. It was later extended by his son, Mikołaj. From 1624 onwards, the surrounding land remained in the hands of the Ostrogski-Zasławski family; in 1683, Teofila Ostrogska-Zasławska married the Marshal of the Crown Józef Lubomirski, with the manor forming part of her dowry. In 1693-1703, the former castle was redesigned by Tylman van Gameren, a renowned architect, becoming a Baroque palace surrounded by a lush, formal garden which followed the geometric style that was fashionable back in the day. In 1710, the palace became part of the dowry of Marianna Lubomirska and was acquired by her husband, Paweł Karol Sanguszko. Having sustained extensive damage during the Great Northern War, in years 1722 - 1741 the palace was reconstructed on the basis of a design produced by the renowned architect P. A. Fontana, with both the façades and the interiors receiving a new, fresh design. It was also at that point that the ensemble of buildings which surround the majestic cour d’honneur - the outbuildings, the gate with a clock tower and the corner turrets - were built, as was the orangery. In years 1757-1775, the palace was modernised once again, this time at the initiative of the widowed third wife of count Sanguszko - Barbara Sanguszko née Dunin, with Jakub Fontana being responsible for the redesign. In 1830, while in the hands of Klementyna Małachowska née Sanguszko, the residential complex was redesigned by Adolf Schuch, who decided that the buildings surrounding the courtyard would be torn down. From 1839, the palace remained the property of Henryk Łubieński and was later taken over by the Polish Bank. In years 1843-1858 the palace served as an army hospital. In 1858, it was purchased and restored by Stanisław Mycielski. From 1867 onwards the building remained abandoned. Having suffered significant damage in 1918, the palace was then engulfed by the blaze in 1933. Later on, the Lubartów Municipal Board decided to purchase what remained of the building. The edifice was destroyed once again during the Second World War. Its restoration, based on the design by Tadeusz Witkowski, took place in years 1950-1970.

Descritpion

The palace complex is located in the northern part of town, on the axial line of the alley leading towards Kozłówka. The complex consists of the palace itself as well as the orangery, the park and fragments of the perimeter walls with gates. The palace, designed in the Baroque style, was built on a rectangular floor plan, its front façade facing the west. The building features a pair of pronounced corner extensions which adorn the façade overlooking the garden. The three-storey building with a basement features a grand first floor (the so-called piano nobile) and a low top floor which takes the form of a mezzanine. The palace is a brick building, its walls covered with plaster. The corps de logis of the palace is covered with a hip roof, while the corner extensions feature four-sloped, bulbous cupolas surmounted by roof lanterns. The interior follows a two-bay layout, having seen a number of transformations over the years. On the axis of the ground floor there is a vestibule with mirrored, half-turn stairs leading to the first floor, followed by a drawing room with an exit towards the garden. The ballroom which extends all the way into the mezzanine level above is positioned directly above the drawing room. The front façade follows a thirteen-axial design with three pseudo-avant-corps: a three-axial one in the middle and a pair of two-axial ones at the edges. The middle avant-corps is preceded by a portico with four pairs of Tuscan columns supporting the balcony above. The avant-corps façade is crowned with a triangular pediment projecting ahead of the simple, unadorned parapet wall. The walls of the ground floor level are adorned with rustication and separated from the rest of the façade by a string course. The upper storeys of the avant-corps are accentuated by pilasters designed in giant order, with the entire façade being topped with an entablature carrying a triglyph frieze. The window openings are rectangular in shape, with the first-floor windows of the avant-corps being topped with semicircular arches; above the windows there is an alternating arrangement of triangular and segment-headed pediments supported by corbels. The square windows of the upper level (referred to as the mezzanine due to the relatively small height of the rooms) are adorned with decorative surrounds with label stops. The façade is adorned by lavish plasterwork decorations incorporating festoons, swags, medallions as well as mask and shell motifs. The triangular pediment at the top incorporates the portrayal of Apollo surrounded by putti. The defining feature of the façade overlooking the gardens is the seven-axial pseudo-avant-corps topped with a decorative roof parapet (attic) as well as the pronounced corner extensions which follow a single-axial design. Inside, very few elements of the original décor have been preserved, including the staircase and the former ballroom. The orangery is located north of the palace; it was designed on an elongated rectangular floor plan, its longer sides measuring about 60 metres. The building, featuring a transverse annex, is made of brick, its walls covered with plaster. The front façade is pierced by tall windows topped with semicircular arches, its middle and outermost sections partitioned with pilasters. A mitered entablature at the top of the façade provides the finishing touch. The perimeter wall with gate was designed in the Baroque style, its construction coinciding with the construction of the palace itself. The park started its life as a formal, geometric garden designed back in the 17th and 18th century; it was later converted into a landscape park, its consecutive redesigns taking place around the year 1830 (Franciszek Wichrowski) and in the late 19th century (Franciszek Szanior). From 1935 onwards, the area serves as a municipal park. After 1949, the formal French-style garden from the Sanguszko era was partially reconstructed on the basis of the design produced by Gerard Ciołek. The remains of the former moat and bridge can be found south-east of the palace.

The historic building is partially accessible to visitors, with the palace serving as the District Employment Agency, while the orangery remains in private hands.

compiled by Bożena Stanek-Lebioda, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 30-03-2015.

Bibliography

  • Czapska G., Pałac Sanguszków w Lubartowie, “Roczniki Humanistyczne KUL”, vol. 15, issue 4, 1967, pp. 63-93.
  • Danczowska H., Architekt Tadeusz Witkowski 1904-1986, Lublin 2009, p. 135.
  • Dziubecki Tomasz, Programy symboliczne i funkcje ceremonialne rezydencji magnackich, Warsaw 2010, passim.
  • Fijałkowski D., Kseniak M., Parki wiejskie Lubelszczyzny, Warsaw 1982, pp. 105-106.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Vol. VIII: Dawne województwo lubelskie, issue 11: Dawny powiat lubartowski, Warsaw 1976, pp. 38-41.
  • Kseniak M., Parki i ogrody dworskie w województwie lubelskim, part. II - Od Kijan do Dęblina wzdłuż Wieprza, Lublin 1983, pp. 33-40.
  • Makowiecki T., Archiwum planów Tylmana z Gameren architekta epoki Sobieskiego, Warsaw 1938, pp. 19 [151], fig. II. 2.
  • Mossakowski S., Tylman z Gameren architekt polskiego baroku, Wrocław 1973, pp. 226-227, il. 242.
  • Omilanowska M., Polska. Pałace i dwory, Warsaw 2005, pp. 78-79.
  • Rolska-Boruch I., Wizja renesansowej willi Firlejów w Lewartowie, [in:] Pałac w ogrodzie, Wierzbicka B. (ed.), collective work, Warsaw 1999, pp. 84-97.
  • Przesmycka E., Boguszewska K., Losy oranżerii w Lubartowie, “Teka Komisji Architektury, Urbanistyki i Studiów Krajobrazowych” Polish Academy of Sciences - Lublin Branch, 2011, pp. 126-131.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1693 - 1703
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Lubartów
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district lubartowski, commune Lubartów (gm. miejska)
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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