Parish Church of St Anne - Zabytek.pl
woj. lubelskie, pow. lubartowski, gm. Lubartów-gmina miejska
The present-day parish church was erected in years 1733-1738, replacing the third wooden parish church that stood on this spot, dating back to the mid-17th century - the successor to two even older temples that stood here, the parish having existed from 1549 onwards. The church was funded by the erstwhile owner and resident of the town of Lubartów, Paweł K. Sanguszko, the great marshal of Lithuania. In 1792, the roof of the church was destroyed during a devastating fire; it was reconstructed shortly thereafter, albeit in a simplified form; for example, the steeple that had once graced the middle of the nave roof has not been reintroduced following reconstruction. The church underwent restoration in years 1860-1871, 1873-1877, 1880 and ca. 1900, when the towers received new cupolas. The conservation of the Baroque period trompe l’œil paintings which adorn the chancel took place in years 1963-4; the author of the wall paintings is Eugeniusz Czuhorski, a painter from Cracow. A comprehensive restoration of the church which also included the addition of polychrome decorations on the vault and walls of the main body of the church, executed by Roland Róg, a painter and art restorer, took place in years 1997-2002.
The church is oriented towards the east; it is located between the northern frontage of the Old Town market square and the nearby palace complex separated from the rest of the area by a moat. The front facade of the church faces the contemporary, wide road known as Słowackiego street, leading out of the market square; at one time, however, this road was merely a narrow alley that facilitated access to the church.
The church is a brick building with a pair of towers, its main body layout incorporating elements of both central-plan and longitudinal design and featuring an octagonal central nave which rises high above the ambulatory, the transept chapels and the chancel. The nave features a steep eight-faced roof; the chancel, transept chapels and the western arm of the building are covered with gable roofs, while all the remaining chapels and loges feature shed roofs. All roofs of the church are clad with sheet metal. The nave rests upon eight pillars and opens up towards the rest of the church with four large arches which are positioned perpendicularly; on the longitudinal axis, the archways lead down to the two-bay chancel and a short, single-bay pipe organ gallery, while on the transverse axis the arches open towards a pair of transept arms which incorporate the side chapels, the size of these arms being analogous to that of the pipe organ gallery. The interior space is supplemented by four smaller chapels, designed on a square floor plan and positioned on diagonal axes; these are accessible from the main nave through smaller arches, although they may also be reached through trapezium-shaped tunnel-like passages from the transept chapels as well as from the porch positioned directly below the pipe organ gallery. The annexes which flank the chancel on both sides house the sacristy (north annex) and the treasury (south annex) with their respective vestibules as well as the patrons’ pews located upstairs. The western part of the main body of the church is flanked by a pair of towers designed on a square floor plan and adjoining the sides of the church along the line of its front façade.
Interior. The elongated, octagonal nave is separated from the rest of the church by an alternating arrangement of four larger and smaller arches, supported by eight corner pillars adorned with panelled Corinthian pilasters rising above convex pedestals. The four large arches rest upon Corinthian impost blocks projecting above smooth-faced pilasters positioned upon simple pedestals below as well as on stylised Regency capitals, with cornices extending towards the side walls of the transept chapels and of the pipe organ gallery. The pipe organ gallery rests upon a basket-handle arch positioned towards the west and features a decorative parapet adorned with Regency ornamentation. The arched openings leading into four smaller chapels feature archivolts supported by impost blocks projecting outwards from Ionic pilasters below. The entablature running around the nave is mitered above the pilasters and features a dentilled strip below the cornice. The sections of the entablature above the larger arches, on the other hand, do not feature any architrave or frieze and arc upwards to follow the curve of the arch below.
The vault above the nave is a tripartite design consisting of a barrel vault above the wide middle bay, flanked by two parallel arches, as well as of two conch-like semi-domes above the outermost sections, separated by arches which meet the transverse structural arches along the axis of the vault. Lunettes with axially positioned windows are located between the diagonal supporting arches.
The side walls of the transept chapels are framed with paired pilasters beneath the arches and half-pilasters on the outer corners of the arms, interconnected by a cornice and linked by half-arches which support a short barrel vault above. The side walls of the chapels are pierced with tunnel-like arcaded passages with archivolts supported by impost cornices, connecting analogous arched openings on both sides of the passage; above them rise semi-circular openings topped with reverse ogee arches, adorned by archivolts supported by small corbels. Niches with embedded confessionals are positioned in the outer walls of the passages. The same motif of stacked arches can be seen on both the eastern and the western wall of the paired small chapels; the eastern chapel features a semi-domical niche incorporating the entrance into the sacristy, while the wall towards the south incorporates a blind arch. The niches of the upper arcades incorporate windows of the patron’s pews above the chancel, topped with semi-circular arches. The lower arched openings in the walls of the western chapels serve as passages leading into the porch positioned beneath the pipe organ gallery, while the upper arches open towards the side sections of the pipe organ gallery and incorporate decorative balustrades.
The bays of the four chapels, designed on a square floor plan, are marked by the mitered Ionic pilasters positioned in the corners and carrying sections of entablature as well as narrow supporting arches designed to carry the weight of the groin vault above. The bay containing the porch features a flattened groin vault.
The side walls of the main section of the bipartite chancel are framed by paired pilasters carrying sections of full entablature, positioned alongside the rood arch, as well as by the eastern pair of pilasters which serves to separate the narrower section of the chancel which contains the altarpiece. An ellipsoid dome resting upon pendentives rises above the main section of the chancel, illuminated by a pair of low windows which pierce the lower section of the dome itself, separated from the pendentives by a string course. A short barrel vault rises above the altarpiece, terminating in a straight wall towards the east, pierced by a large window topped with a reverse-ogee arch with a basket-handle profile. The lower sections of both walls feature paired doorway portals topped with arched pediments adorned with regency motifs, surmounted by pairs of arcaded niches the lower parts of which connect with the string course below; the niches are adorned by decorative surrounds with pilasters and archivolts and incorporate segment-headed windows illuminating the upper galleries. The walls of the sacristy, the treasury and the galleries feature no architectural partitions whatsoever, their vaulted ceilings being of the barrel type (with lunettes).
The vaults of the vestibules are likewise of the barrel type.
The front façade follows a two-storey, three-axial layout flanked by a pair of towers and featuring a broad faux avant-corps in the middle. The lower storey of both the façade and the towers follows the Doric order, being partitioned by dual pilasters set atop a stone plinth and a smooth-sided, dual plinth positioned directly above. The shafts of the six pilasters of the central pseudo-avant-corps are adorned with decorative panels; the pilasters adorning the towers, on the other hand, feature completely smooth, unembellished shafts. The tower walls between the pilasters are slightly convex, pierced with conch-shaped niches with decorative surrounds, incorporating the sculptures of St Peter and Paul. Mitred entablature with triglyphs is used for both the supports and the niches. A stone portal with a pair of composite columns, topped with a cartouche incorporating an inscription referring to the foundation of the church, flanked by volute-shaped decorations, is positioned on the central axis of the façade.
The second storey of the pseudo-avant-corps consists of a bipartite pediment with a tall base with two pairs of faux pilasters with recessed panels on the shafts, flanking a large window illuminating the organ loft, topped with a reverse ogee arch (a segmental arch with side overhangs). Further above rises the broad aedicula with a pair of herm Ionic pilasters which frame a large panel incorporating the relief of the scene of St Anne teaching the young Virgin Mary, surrounded by a profiled surround topped with a reverse ogee arch similar to the one used for the organ gallery window below. The aeducila is flanked by sculpted volutes and volute-shaped abutments upon which rest the figures of adoring angels. The uppermost section of the façade features a triangular split pediment with the stone figure of the Immaculate Virgin Mary at the top. The outermost sections of the plinth at the base of the aedicula are topped with stone urns.
The upper storeys of the towers take the form of slightly concave blind arcades flanked by pairs of pilasters and engaged columns at the corners, all following the principles of the Ionic order. These columns and pilasters stand atop a plinth, mitred at the corners and following a convex shape in the section between the columns. The base of the cupola features oculi in the middle of each side, flanked by diagonal volutes at the corners, with the top cornice following the shape of a segmental arch. The tower cupolas, clad with sheet metal, take the form of octagonal lanterns with blind oculi and blind dormer windows on a dome-shaped base, terminating in tall spires topped by iron crosses perched atop gilt spheres.
Behind the gable of the front façade rises the front wall of the pseudo-tholobate with Ionic pilasters, mitred at the corners and adorned with regency motifs, supporting an entablature with a corbelled frieze which is topped with a small, aedicula-like gable in the Tuscan order, flanked by volute-shaped abutments and topped with a small pediment. The side walls of this pseudo-tholobate follow a similar design, with the windows on the axes of the four diagonal walls being adorned with decorative surrounds, surmounted by small pediments above. The wider side sections feature an additional touch in the form of paired pilasters.
The side façades of the main body of the church follow a tripartite design; the ambulatory walls are single-storey structures partitioned with lesenes and framing, featuring a cornice and a partial entablature which is carried over from the lower storey of the transept chapels; the expansive middle sections of the chapel walls are flanked by paired Doric pilasters, while the upper storey of each chapel is framed by pairs of low faux pilasters supporting a slightly mitred entablature surmounted by an undulating pediment featuring an oculus set into the middle of the tympanum. A large window topped with a reverse ogee arch is positioned on the first-floor level, on the middle axis of the façade. The façades of the pseudo-tholobate of the nave follow a design which is clearly reminiscent of the front wall thereof, topped with a pronounced cornice and featuring large windows piercing the diagonal walls of the structure; the windows are adorned with flat window surrounds with label stops and surmounted by triangular pediments. The annexes of the eastern façade follow a tripartite design; the chancel features rounded corners adorned with pilasters, with string courses filling the spaces between the storeys of the side annexes. The profiled crowning cornice provides the finishing touch. The eastern side of the chancel is accentuated by a shallow avant-corps framed by pilasters which support the entablature above. The eastern gable is slightly convex in shape, featuring pairs of rounded pilasters on the sides; its top section is graced by a split, semi-circular pediment with a pronounced upper section, flanked by the corniced, split semi-gables which crown the side annexes. An 18th-century Baroque crucifix graces the shallow niche positioned on the axis of the avant-corps, topped with a semi-circular arch.
The fixtures and fittings originate from the period of construction of the church and are mostly made of wood. Inside the nave, a total of six wooden statues portraying the Doctors of the Church grace the plinths beneath the pillars: the sculptures of St Augustine, Pope Saint Gregory I, St Ambrose, St John Chrysostom, St Jerome and another unidentified Doctor of the Church. Other notable interior fixtures include a pulpit with a decorative canopy as well as a group of sculptures portraying the Baptism of Christ, equipped with a back board and canopy, both of them set atop the plinths that flank the rood arch. The church features a total of five architectural altarpieces with lavish sculptural decorations. An ensemble of founders’ pews and a set of period cupboards can be found in the chancel and the sacristy respectively. In the south-western chapel stands the marble tomb of Paweł Sanguszko and his wife Barbara Sanguszko née Dunin, designed in the Classicist style.
Inside the chancel, visitors can marvel at the trompe l’œil wall paintings dating back to the mid-18th century. The painted decorations in the nave, on the other hand, are a modern addition, designed to resemble similar paintings executed back during the Late Baroque period.
The church may be viewed from the outside during the day.
compiled by Roman Zwierzchowski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 02-10-2014.
- Raczyński J., Centralne barokowe kościoły na Lubelszczyźnie, Warsaw 1929
- Katalog Zabytków sztuki w Polsce, Vol. VIII, dawne województwo lubelskie, R. Brykowski and E. Smulikowska (eds.), vol. 11, d. powiat lubartowski, compiled by R. Brykowski, Warsaw 1976
- Parish church of St Anne. Lubartów, record sheet, compiled by W. Koziejowski, 1977-1983
- The bell tower of the church of St Anne. Lubartów, record sheet, compiled by W. Koziejowski, 1978-1983
Protection: Register of monuments
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_06_BK.6909