Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski, Łęknica
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski is an extensive landscape park designed in years 1815-1844 at the initiative of Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau. The transboundary entry to the World Heritage List encompasses the central part of the complex with a surface area of 348 hectares, including 136.1 hectares on the German side and 211.9 hectares on the Polish side. The remaining part of the composition falls within the surrounding buffer zone of 1,205 hectares.

The park is an outstanding complex having an immense significance for the development of landscape design and landscape architecture as a distinct design discipline. The distinguishing feature of the property, that encompass both natural and artificial water bodies, bridges, buildings, growths of trees and footpaths, is the man-made landscape designed to incorporate the natural features of the Lusatian Neisse valley. The extensive park boasts an entire network of visual connections which converge on the dominant architectural feature of the park – the New Castle, with observation points positioned on riverside terraces so that the natural features of the surrounding terrain are incorporated into the design. An immensely significant aspect of Pückler’s work is also the design of the green passages and urban parks, that allow the park to integrate and extend into the town of Bad Muskau. The incorporation of the community into the overall composition, as a key component in his planned utopian landscape, had a great impact on contemporary town planning, particularly in the United States, as exemplified by the system of urban greenery in Boston.

The consistency of creative thought evident in the design makes this park complex particularly valuable due to the fact that, despite the passage of time and the numerous changes in ownership, the original composition of the park has survived and the designs of its creator persisted well into the present day. In 1934, Prince Pückler published a book entitled “Andeutungen über Landschaftsgärtnerei”, in which he laid down the principles for landscape design theory. Both he and his student Eduard Petzold, were also involved in educational activities, which resulted in the creation of standards for the work of landscape garden designers, which have subsequently been adopted in Bad Muskau and beyond. This training tradition has been revived in recent times by the creation of Muskauer School, as an international school for the training in garden and cultural landscape maintenance.

Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski was included on the World Heritage List in 2004 during the 28th session of the World Heritage Committee in Suzhou (dec. 28 COM 14B.53).

Entry made on the basis of criteria I and IV:

Criterion (I):

Muskauer Park/Park Mużakowski is an exceptional example of a European landscape park that broke new ground in terms of development towards an ideal man-made landscape.

Criterion (IV):

Muskauer Park/Park Mużakowski was the forerunner for new approaches to landscape design in cities, and influenced the development of landscape architecture as a discipline.

The property is accessible to visitors.

Compiled on the basis of materials of the National Heritage Board of Poland, 30-11-2015

General information

  • Type: cultural
  • Chronology: 1815 - 1844 r.
  • Form of protection: UNESCO
  • Address: Wybrzeżna 25, Łęknica
  • Location: Voivodeship lubuskie, district żarski, commune Łęknica
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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