Town walls, Grodków
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The preserved remnants of the defensive walls, along with two gate towers - Lewińska and Ziębicka - and a jail tower, testify to the mediaeval roots of the urban layout.

History

The town of Grodków was founded in the mid-13th century. In 1344 it became the property of the bishops of Wrocław and was named capital of the Duchy of Grodków. Thanks to the effort of Bishop Przecław of Pogorzela, four tower gates were erected: Ziębicka (from the west), Lewińska (from the east), Wrocławska (from the north) and Nyska (from the south). According to the literature, the city walls were built already at the turn of the 13th century. About 1600, the walls were renovated and the towers decorated with Renaissance attics. In the years 1664-1671, the walls destroyed during the Thirty Years' War were rebuilt thanks to the effort of Bishop Sebastian Rostock. In the early 19th century, the moat was filled, and the jail tower and Lewińska and Ziębicka Gate towers were renovated. Large sections of the fortifications have been maintained until today, especially in the south-west and north parts of the town.

Description

The walls surrounding Grodków include the geometrically laid out streets and plots with the centrally located marketplace, the town hall and the Parish Church of St Michael standing west of the market square. The fortifications had a shape of an oval and originally contained four gate towers: the Nyska and Wrocławska Gates located along the main transport route and the Ziębicka and Lewińska Gates located on the route from Ziębice to Lewin Brzeski. Besides, the fortifications include a jail tower at the former Wrocławska Gate. In the lower level, the defensive walls were made of fieldstone while in the upper level made of brick. The Lewińska and Ziębicka Gates were built on a rectangular plan with pointed-arch passages through at the ground level and topped with attics. The jail tower, just like the gate towers, was built on a rectangular plan. It is plastered and its corners are embellished with rustication. The window openings are found only in the upper levels. The upper level is topped with a battlement. Today, the walls can be seen only from the south-west and from the north.

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 18-05-2015.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. VII: Województwo opolskie, z. 3: Powiat grodkowski, red. T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, Warszawa 1964, s. 13-14, 22.
  • R. Eysymontt, Kod genetyczny miasta. Średniowieczne miasta lokacyjne Dolnego Śląska na tle urbanistyki Europejskiej, Wrocław 2009, s. 311-314.

General information

  • Type: defensive wall
  • Chronology: 1296
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Grodków
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district brzeski, commune Grodków - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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