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Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region - Zabytek.pl

Address
Sudół

Location
woj. świętokrzyskie, pow. ostrowiecki, gm. Bodzechów-gmina wiejska

The property was inscribed on the List by World Heritage Committee in 2019.   Brief Synthesis Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region (in short: Krzemionki) is located in the north-eastern fringe of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains in central Poland on both sides of Kamienna River. It is a serial property comprised of four component parts: the principal Krzemionki Opatowskie Mining Field; two smaller mining fields, Borownia and Korycizna, aligned on the same geological structure; and the Gawroniec prehistoric miners’ permanent settlement that received semi products of flint axes from the mines for finishing and polishing prior to distribution. The property dates from 3,900 BCE to 1,600 BCE (Neolithic to Early Bronze Age) and is one of the largest known complexes of its type in the Neolithic Period. It is also the most completely preserved and wholly readable socio-technical system of prehistoric underground flint mining and processing and illustrates the greatest range of prehistoric flint mining techniques known in a single property. Attributes include great chambers with a floor area of over 500 m2 that are unknown from any other site. At the property, a unique type of flint – striped flint banded in exceptional zebra-like patterns of alternating shades of grey – was mined and fashioned into axes and distributed in a verifiable radius of 650 km from the complex, in present-day Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania.

A diverse range of mine types are also identified with different surface expressions in a remarkably intact anthropogenic surface that presents a rare prehistoric industrial landscape of shaft depressions and up-cast waste, remnants of flint workshops, miners’ camps and communication routes. Gawroniec Settlement, integral to the functioning of the deposit management system, is a legible testimony to the organisation of a prehistoric community based around mining.

Criterion (iii): Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region is illustrative of the living and working patterns of settled prehistoric communities that distinguish the Neolithic period from that which preceded it. The serial property bears witness to the economic and social organisation of segments of the Neolithic society, which were linked to the extraction of flint and its use for the production of polished axes. 

The attributes of the property, including the integral Gawroniec Settlement are further enhanced by the proven distribution of striped-flint axes that have been identified in a radius of over 650 kilometres from the complex – the largest recorded range for prehistoric flint axes which act as significant indicators for prehistoric movements.

Criterion (iv): Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region represents an exceptional type of Neolithic mining landscape, bearing witness both to a complex technical and social system and to human adaptation to the conditions of natural resource exploitation that is a landmark in the history of mining. It provides evidence that the prehistoric period brought flint mining to produce tools in the largest known example for the prehistoric exploitation of flint. The serial property illustrates diverse underground prehistoric mining structures comprising open-pit, niche-gallery, gallery, pillar-chamber and chamber mines – and primary workshops, which survive intact in well over 4,000 shafts and pits.

Components of serial property:

  • mining field Krzemionki Opatowskie
  • mining field Borownia
  • mining field Korycizna
  • prehistoric permanent mining settlement Gawroniec

 

UNESCO WHC site

Category: cultural

Protection: UNESCO World Heritage

Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_26_UN.2146