The complex of the Artillery Academy barracks, Zambrów
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The complex of the Artillery Academy barracks

Zambrów

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The complex of army barracks dates back to the late 19th and early 20th century, its original spatial layout having been preserved intact despite the passage of time. Most of the structures comprising the complex have also retained their original silhouette and distinctive red brick façades graced by intricate architectural detailing. The complex also possesses a historical value due to its vital role in the town’s history as well as its impact on the development thereof.

History

The complex of army barracks, originally designed for the Russian troops of the 4th Infantry Squadron, forming part of the 6th Army Corps, was erected in the late 19th and early 20th century (between the 1880s and ca. 1905). After the complex was taken over by the Polish army, the barracks became home to the 1st Infantry Regiment of the 1st Brigade of the Polish Legions and then of various sub-units of the Polish Armed Forces. Between 1926 and 1937, the barracks served the needs of the 71st Infantry Regiment, the 18th Light Artillery Squadron and the 18th Heavy Artillery Squadron. In the years 1937-1939, the south-eastern part of the complex remained under the administration of the Józef Bem Mazovian Artillery Reserve Academy for Officer Cadets. Between 1951 and 1957, various units of the Polish People’s Army were stationed here. During that period, many of the buildings which had been damaged during the war have been torn down. After the Zambrów Cotton Factory began its operations in 1954, some of the former barracks were adapted to serve as a workers’ estate. After 1957, the remaining structures have also served a variety of new functions, including those of educational facilities, public institutions, service establishments etc.

Description

The complex is situated in the southern part of town, alongside the Wojska Polskiego avenue. The Ogrodowa, and Fabryczna streets serve as its western and northern boundaries respectively; the eastern boundary runs alongside the Mazowiecka and Magazynowa streets, while the course of the southern boundary is virtually identical to that of the Elektryczna and Przykoszarowa streets.

Most of the buildings feature distinctive red brick façades adorned with brick detailing arranged in a manner typical of the architecture of industrial and army buildings of the late 19th and early 20th century.

The surface area of the complex is about 67 hectares in total.

The complex initially consisted of 28 buildings (today, one of these buildings is no longer extant); most of them are two- or three-storey structures with exposed red brick walls, although some of them have been updated with a plaster finish at a later date.

The former residential buildings designed for army officers and non-commissioned officers as well as two casinos form part of the western frontage of the Wojska Polskiego avenue; the buildings are positioned in a side-gabled arrangement. The former residential, administrative, utility and auxiliary buildings (including the infirmary, washhouse, bathhouse and storage facility) are located on the eastern side of the avenue, between the Fabryczna, Legionowa, Grunwaldzka, Magazynowa and Elektryczna streets. Most of these buildings are designed so that their roof ridge runs in parallel to the Wojska Polskiego avenue (side-gabled arrangement).

The area of the former army barracks is overgrown with trees and divided by a network of internal roads. Apart from the historical buildings, there are also numerous modern structures of various sizes, serving many different purposes.

The site is open to visitors. Most of the structures can only be viewed from the outside.

compiled by Aneta Kułak, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Białystok, 13-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet, Army barrack complex, compiled by Kułak Aneta, 2004, collection of the Regional Monument Inspector (Łomża Branch Office) and of the National Heritage Board of Poland.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. IX: Województwo łomżyńskie, issue 2: Ciechanowiec, Zambrów, Wysokie Mazowieckie i okolice, compiled by Kałamajska-Saeed Maria, Warsaw 1986, p. 97.
  • Piórkowski Tomasz, Artylerzyści z cenzusem. Mazowiecka Szkoła Podchorążych Rezerwy Artylerii im. gen. Józefa Bema w Zambrowie (1937-1939), Pruszków 2003.
  • www. koszary.zambrow.org

General information

  • Type: residential building
  • Chronology: przełom XIX/XX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Zambrów
  • Location: Voivodeship podlaskie, district zambrowski, commune Zambrów (gm. miejska)
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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