Earthen rampart - remains of historical earthen fortifications of the former fortified manor, Zagrody
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Earthen rampart - remains of historical earthen fortifications of the former fortified manor

Zagrody

photo

The earthen rampart in Zagrody is believed to be the remnant of historical earthen fortifications which had once surrounded a medieval manor house - one of the few surviving structures of this kind in the Lublin region and a valuable source of information for researchers exploring the history of the now-vanished fortified residences.

Location and description

The earthen fortified complex (fortalice), known locally as “Zamczysko” (The Burgstall), is located between the Żulin, Kolonia Żulin and Zagrody villages, about one kilometre to the north-east of the cluster of buildings which forms the Żulin village. The site is clearly visible in the surrounding terrain due to its location at the top of a hill at the height of 240 metres above sea level, in an area interspersed with numerous limestone outcrops. At the top of the hill, about 750 metres north of the site when calculated in a straight line, stretches the swampy valley of the Białka river.

The fortified complex was erected on a roughly square plan, its size being about 33 x 35 metres. The inner yard of the fortalice measures 13 x 16 metres and is surrounded by an earthen rampart the current height of which is between 1 and 1.5 metres in relation to the inner yard level, its width being between 7 and 9 metres when measured at its base. On the northern side of the structure the rampart has either not been preserved or had never existed at all, with the moat being the only line of defence from that direction. The depth of the moat surrounding the former fort is about 5 - 6 metres in relation to the top of the rampart, its width being between 2 and 3 metres. The hill on which the ramparts are located remains in constant use as a piece of arable land; the site itself, however, remains abandoned and is overgrown with thick vegetation (blackthorn shrubs). A large amount of small limestone rocks can be seen on the surface of the hill, with a number of hollows which have most likely come into being as the local limestone was being quarried for construction purposes located in the immediate vicinity of the site.

History

Due to the unsatisfactory results of archaeological surveys and the relatively limited degree of exploration, the structures found on the site may only tentatively be considered as the remnants of historical earthen fortifications from the Middle Ages.

The site is located within the administrative boundaries of the Zagrody village; however, due to the fact that it is situated closer to the village of Żulin, some authors have erroneously placed it in that particular village instead. There appear to be no mentions whatsoever of the hillfort in written sources.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Verification activities and surveys were conducted in 1980 by Jerzy Cichomski from the Historical Monument Conservation Workshop (PP PKZ) in Lublin. In the course of archaeological exploration, a single excavation with a surface area of 16.5 square metres was made in the eastern part of the site, covering a part of the inner surface of the structure as well as nearly the entire rampart, right down to the bottom of the moat. In addition, 9 exploratory drillings were made along the east-west axis. As a result of the survey it has been determined that the rampart was built around a limestone core with a triangular cross-section, standing at 1 - 1.2 metres tall and about 3 metres wide, covered by a multi-layer earth and stone coating which goes all the way down into the moat. A hollow in the rampart has been discovered inside which about 6 human skeletons were interred, dismembered and incomplete; these most likely originate from the period of World War I, as evidenced by a soldier’s uniform button and medallion from this very period which were found on the site. In addition, a single pottery fragment was found, tentatively identified as originating from the Middle Ages.

Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out in 1984. In the course of the surface surveys, no moveable artefacts have been found on the site.

Unlimited access to the historic site.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 14-09-2015.

Bibliography

  • Skibiński S., Zabytki powiatu chełmskiego (Katalog - inwentarz), part I, Archeologia, Chełm 1964, item. 757 (typescript available in the archive of the District Museum in Chełm).
  • Gurba J., Grodziska Lubelszczyzny, Lublin 1965, p. 51
  • Cichomski J., Żulin, gm. Rejowiec, woj. Chełm. Grodzisko. Dokumentacja z badań weryfikacyjno-sondażowych, Lublin 1980 (typescript available at the archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland, Regional Branch in Lublin).
  • Cichomski J., Wczesnośredniowieczne osadnictwo obronne na terenie województwa chełmskiego. Katalog grodzisk. Vol. I, Lublin 1980 (typescript available at the Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin, Chełm branch).

General information

  • Type: fortifications
  • Chronology: VI - XV w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Zagrody
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district chełmski, commune Rejowiec - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

Licence:

report issue with this site

Geoportal Map

Google Map

See also in this area