Palace complex, Wysocko
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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It is an example of a palace complex with an extensive spatial programme, of high value in the region.

History

The beginnings of the palace complex in Wysocko go back to the 1670s, when, on the initiative of Marie Casimire Louise de La Grange d'Arquien Zamoyski, later Sobieski, a wooden mulit-storey manor house with corner extensions was erected according to a design by Tylman van Gameren, surrounded by fortifications: moats and ramparts. On the initiative of Elżbieta Sieniawska née Lubomirska and according to designs by Giovanni Spazzio, construction of a masonry palace began in 1719 and was continued according to new designs by S.A. Mayer since 1724. Through the marriage of daughter Zofia Sieniawska primo voto Denhoffowa, secundo voto Zofia Czartoryska, ownership of Wysocko passed into the Czartoryski family, son of Zofia and August, Prince Adam Czartoryski and his wife Izabela Czartoryska née Fleming, and their daughter, famous Maria Wirtemberska sold it to the Zamoyski family. Through the efforts of Jan Zamoyski, in 1875 the palace underwent alterations involving adding an upper storey. During World War I, the palace was completely robbed by Russians and burned down, and when in 1939 its reconstruction was completed, it was again destroyed by fire during World War II.

After the war, it was reconstructed in 1959-1961 and its interior was adapted for use as a social welfare home.

The structures of the complex were built in the 19th century. The cellar in the park was erected in the early 19th century, the forge in the 1830s, the obelisk in the park in 1833, and the outbuilding, shrine and stable in the second half of the 19th century.

The garden was built in the 18th century, with geometric quarters located on two flat terraces in the San valley; it was converted into landscape gardens typical of the 19th century, with numerous specimens of trees of foreign origin.

Description

The palace complex is located in the north-western part of the village, south of the road from Jarosław to Laszki. The access road leading to the palace complex is lined with a four-row avenue of limes of impressive size.

The palace is located in the middle of the complex, on the axis of the access avenue. It was built on a nearly rectangular floor plan; its cuboidal body is embellished with two side avant-corps and a central avant-corps with a terrace supported by pillars. The sections with projecting avant-corps are covered with mansard roofs, while the main body of the building is topped with a gable roof. The two-storey building with basement underneath some of its sections was built of brick; the roofs were clad with ceramic tiles. The north, front façade is thirteen-axial, symmetrical, and features three avant-corps; it is pierced by an entrance in the centre, which is accentuated by a terrace supported by four rusticated pillars, with a stone balustrade on the upper storey. The avant-corps are partitioned vertically by pilasters rusticated on the ground floor and Tuscan pilasters on the upper storey.

The southern, garden façade is fifteen-axial, symmetrical, and features an entrance in the centre leading to a terrace running along the entire façade.

Side façades are three-axial; the east façade was extended by the addition of a three-axial veranda, and the west façade was pierced by entrance in the middle.

The windows are decorated with surrounds with rustication or surrounds and headers. The whole building is adorned with cornices: intermediate and crowning cornices, in the avant-corps with entablature topped with a dentilled frieze, and additionally horizontally accentuated with a stepped plinth. The interiors with a two-bay mulit-axial layout with a corridor in the middle has no original fittings.

The outbuilding is located in the vicinity of the palace, east of its front façade; it was built on a floor plan resembling the letter "L" in shape. Its body is composed of several cuboids, crowned with a multi-hipped roof, and embellished with a three-sided avant-corps to the south. The multi-storey building with basement underneath some of its sections was built of brick and its roof was clad with roof tiles. The façade include no decorations and are pieced by rectangular windows arranged in bands.

The shrine is situated on the east side of the avenue leading to the palace. It was built of brick on a rectangular floor plan with a niche as a one-storey structure topped with a stepped gable. The front façade is adorned with a recess with a pointed-arch portal with sculpted splayed window reveals with three engaged columns; the stepped gable is decorated with pinnacles and surmounted by a stone cross. Inside the shrine, there is a statue of the Virgin Mary of the Immaculate Conception on a socle, bearing the engraved date "1884".

The forge ruins are located opposite the east entrance gate to the palace complex, with the front façade facing the west at the roadside. The forge was built of brick on an irregular plan, consisting of a rectangular main body and small parts to the east and south, as a multi-storey building, probably with basement underneath some of its parts. It has survived in the form of ruins, without roofs, ceilings and joinery, with traces of the old decorations in the form of remnants of cornices and window surrounds.

Stables are located in the former farmyard, on the east side of the access avenue leading to the complex, parallel to it. They were built of brick on a floor plan in the shape of an elongated rectangle. The cuboidal one-storey body is covered with a gable roof clad with ceramic roof tiles. The longer façades are multi-axial and pierced by small windows in the upper part and passage gates; the shorter ones are devoid of decorations. The interior is characterised by interesting vaults in the southern part of the building, so-called Czech copes supported by masonry piers.

The obelisk is located in the south-western part of the park. It was built as a commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the battle of Vienna similarly as the inscription as the front of the sandstone cuboid set on a profiled socle.

The cellar is located in the south-west part of the park, under a mound planted with limes. It is made of brick and consists of a chamber covered with a cupola and a corridor topped with a segmental vault. It is decorated with an entrance portal surmounted by a triangular gable and volutes.

The park features a single-axial layout extending over two terraces of the San valley. After alterations made in the 19th century, it is of a landscape nature; however, its layout includes clearly discernible traces of the old geometrical layouts. The area of the park is covered with old trees and many native and foreign trees.

The buildings and the park are open to visitors. They are used as a conference centre with a hotel.

compiled by Barbara Potera, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 15-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Polakowski S. Pozostałości założeń dworskich województwa podkarpackiego, Krosno 2012, pp. 118, 119
  • Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Małopolsce i na Podkarpaciu, Poznań 2012, pp. 506-509
  • Piorecki J., Ogrody i parki województwa przemyskiego, Rzeszów 1989, pp. 153-155
  • Karty ewidencyjne zabytków architektury i budownictwa, tzw. białe, regarding the: palace, outbuilding, shrine, stable, cellar, author: T. Piekarz, 2001, 2002, Archives of the Office for the Protection of Monuments in Przemyśl
  • Record sheet of monument of architecture, so-called white sheet, regarding the forge ruins, author: I. Zając, 1997, Archives of the Office for the Protection of Monuments in Przemyśl

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: l.70. XVII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Wysocko
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district jarosławski, commune Laszki
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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