Palace complex, Wełna
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The palace complex in Wełna is considered one of the most interesting Baroque residences in the region. Particularly noteworthy is the interior layout with two oval rooms, unique in the area of Greater Poland. The complex features a distinctive structure of what was originally an outbuilding, and later a granary, built on an arch-shaped floor plan.

History

The palace was built after 1762 for Jan Franciszek Rostworowski, starost of Żytomierz, according to the project of an unknown architect. In the first half of the century, the estate was owned by the Grabowski family, and by the end of the century, it became property of German nationals and remained such until 1939. Following World War II, it became property of the State Treasury under the act on mortmain property. The residential outbuilding was erected in the third quarter of the 18th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, the layout of the ground floor was modified and an upward extension was made. At the beginning of the 20th century, ceilings were replaced and interiors were modified once again. The purpose of the building changed from residential to utilitarian - the outbuilding was used as a granary and a storehouse.

Description

The palace complex in Wełna is located in the north-western part of the village, and in the east it adjoins the road which links it with a wooden church. The palace is situated on the slope of a hill which extends gently downwards towards the picturesque Wełna river valley. As is common practice, the building has a floor plan which reflects the layout of clock arms showing 1 o’clock. To the north of the palace, there is a palace outbuilding and a farm courtyard flanked thereby in the south, and to the south of the palace, there are village buildings and a parish church.

The palace is built of brick, plastered, and covered with a gable roof with bituminous waterproofing. It was built on the floor plan of an elongated rectangle, with 13 axes and a high basement, and originally had one storey only. Both sides of the longer façades feature three-axis oval avant-corps on the central axis. Originally, the building was covered with a mansard roof. In the 19th century, a mezzanine was added and the existing roof was installed, and wall dormers were erected above the avant-corps, covered with separate gable roofs. It was at the same time that the corners of the building were reinforced with buttresses. The vertical articulation consists of lesenes which frame window openings, and the horizontal articulation consists of a string course which demarcates the mezzanine. The ground-floor windows are nearly square-shaped, and the windows on the first floor are shaped like tall standing rectangles terminated with segmental arches and there is a segmented cornice above them; the attic windows are narrow, paired. The windows in the front avant-corps and the wall dormer above it are topped with semicircular arches. The front avant-corps features a round hallway. The southern gable-end façade has a single axis and external stairs. On the ground floor level of the garden avant-corps, there is a sala terrena, with an oval drawing room above it. The garden façade is adjoined by external half-landing brick stairs with full balustrades, which lead to the terrace and the drawing room. The ground-floor rooms are vaulted, and the top-storey rooms are covered with wooden ceilings.

A residential outbuilding, situated to the west of the palace, marks the southern end of the farmyard. It is a late-Baroque building from the third quarter of the 18th century. The structure was erected on the floor plan of an elongated, arched rectangle, built of brick and plastered. Originally, it only featured one storey, but since the upward extension performed in the 19th century, it has had 2 storeys. The façade has eleven axes and is partitioned with pilasters on both storeys. On the ground floor, doors and windows are topped with semicircular arches and feature archivolts with keystones connected with the oval windows above. The top storey features windows and niches with semicircular arches. The corners of the façade are slightly rounded. The rear and side façades feature no partitions or windows. The façade facing the courtyard is utilitarian in nature. The interiors have been completely modified.

compiled by Tomasz Łuczak, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 31-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, Wełna - pałac, oprac. Kępińska Maria, 1983, Archiwum Wielkopolskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Poznaniu.
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, Wełna - oficyna, obecnie spichlerz i budynek techniczny, oprac. Pryszczewska Joanna, b.d, Archiwum Wielkopolskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Poznaniu.
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, Wełna - zespół folwarczny, oprac. Pryszczewska Joanna, b.d, Archiwum Wielkopolskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Poznaniu.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1762-1800
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Wełna
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district obornicki, commune Rogoźno - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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