The palace and park complex in Warka–Winiary, currently the Kazimierz Pułaski Museum, Warka
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The palace and park complex in Warka–Winiary, currently the Kazimierz Pułaski Museum

Warka

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The palace from the late 17th century, erected on the top of the escarpment over the valley of the Pilica river and surrounded by a historical park, integrated into the natural landscape, is a valuable example of a residential complex in the Masovian region. Due to the shape of architecture, as well as its spatial arrangement, the complex has significant aesthetic and landscape values. The complex is distinguished by its historical value as a place connected with the life of Kazimierz Pułaski.

History

The palace was erected in 1689 for Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, most probably according to the design by Augustyn Wincenty Locci, and replaced a former manor house, probably dating back to the early 17th century. It was built by the terrace-shaped top edge of the escarpment, where in the 16th century, as it is traditionally believed, Queen Bona introduced wine growing.

In the 18th century, Winiary belonged to the Pułaski family. Later, the estate had numerous owners, and the palace underwent several reconstructions. Originally, in the 17th century, the palace had had Baroque features, which, however, were blurred as a result of later conversions in the 19th and 20th century. By the palace, there was a regular garden. The composition from the turn of the 17th and 18th century can be noticed in the today’s layout of the park. The garden was converted in the 19th century in the landscape style, and extended by a strip of the escarpment and the valley, between the slope and the old bed of the Pilica river. In the 1940s, some of the old-growth trees, mainly limes, were cut down.

In 1945, the palace, together with the park and the manor farm, was taken over by the State Treasury.

The complex remained in the possession of the Ministry of Culture and Art and was administered by Warka authorities. It housed the first secondary school in Warka, and then a high school. In 1959, a stone commemorating the 180th anniversary of Kazimierz Pułaski’s death was placed in the park. In 1967, the Kazimierz Pułaski Museum was opened. It was dedicated to the Polish-American hero, whose monument was placed by the driveway to the palace in 1979, to commemorate the 200th anniversary of his death. In 2007-2013, a full-scale renovation and a modernization of the palace as a seat of the museum, as well as a revitalization of the park were carried out, joining three parts of the historical park complex into one functional whole. An educational and environmental path leading to the bank of the Pilica river was established in the lower park.

Description

The palace and park complex in Warka-Winiary, currently the historical and biographical Kazimierz Pułaski Museum, is located in the northern-eastern part of Warka, near the exit road towards Stara Warka. The historical palace is picturesquely located on the top of the escarpment over the river Pilica valley and surrounded by a landscape park of an area of 15 ha, with its diverse composition being part of local landforms. The palace is comprised of two single-storey pavilions, made of brick and plastered, linked together with a parterre wing. The right pavilion is covered with a hip roof, and the parterre wing and the left pavilion are covered with gable roofs. All roofs are clad with sheet metal. In the décor of the façade, there is a noteworthy false avant-corps on the façade of the right pavilion, accentuated with rusticated lesenes, and a parapet wall over the crowning cornice. One should also note corner rustication of the left pavilion and simple window pediments in the right pavilion, as well as window casings in the whole building. The entire park complex is distinguished in terms of its spatial arrangement by its close connection with the landforms and environmental conditions.

The dominant feature of the palace accentuates the distinction between two main park areas, that is the plateau and the valley of the Pilica river. The highest part of the park covers the landscape composition that was created in the 19th century on the basis of a regular garden. Currently, two access roads to the palace are visible traces of that oldest composition. The first one runs parallel to the escarpment, from Warka to the palace, enters the axis of the courtyard, closed with the wall of the park and a colonnade. The second one, perpendicular to the first one, is the main park path, with three tree stumps with sculpted folk chapels being its oldest traces. Various age and species of the trees in the path show that it was filled in in the past. The oldest trees scattered around the park, including over-one-hundred-years-old oaks and natural monuments, create a rather regular layout that accompanies the straight paths. The rest of the park paths were freely routed along curved lines, enclosing areas with tree stands and a small square with a circle of chestnuts.

The paths join at the back of the colonnade, reconstructed on the basis of archival photographs from 1999, described by professor Ciołek as remains of a former orangery. Perhaps it was ruins typical of Romantic park complexes from the 2nd half of the 18th century. The eastern part of the palace park includes an untended escarpment strip with two small ponds in terraced hollows, situated next to a small chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary, located in an artificial grotto on the escarpment slope.

The route running along the embankment, which outlines the main footpath towards the lower park with natural groupings of riparian vegetation, cut with the canals of the old bed of the Pilica river, becomes the educational and environmental path in the area at the foot of the escarpment.

The site is open to visitors.

compiled by Katarzyna Kosior, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warszawa, 07-10-2015.

Bibliography

  • Atlas Zabytków Architektury w Polsce, H. Faryna - Paszkiewicz, M. Omilanowska, R. Pasieczny, Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN. Warszawa 2003 r.;
  • J. Żabicki, Leksykon zabytków architektury Mazowsza i Podlasia, Arkady, Warszawa 2010 r.;
  • Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów Słowiańskich, Tom IV, Warszawa 1880 r.;
  • T.S. Jaroszewski, Po pałacach i dworach Mazowsza, Przewodnik cześć II, Warszawa 1999;
  • P. Libicki, M. Libicki, Dwory i pałace wiejskie na Mazowszu, Poznań 2009;
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytku architektury i budownictwa tzw. Karta Biała, I. Wiśniewska, 1998 r.;
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Tom X Województwo Warszawskie, zeszyt 5 powiat grójecki, Instytut Sztuki PAN, Warszawa 1968 r;

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: 1689 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Kazimierza Pułaskiego 24, Warka
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district grójecki, commune Warka - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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