The parish church of Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Tyniec Mały
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The parish church of Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Tyniec Mały

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The parish church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (formerly known as the church of St Hedwig) constitutes an example of a Silesian village church from the Late Gothic period, featuring an interior which has reverted to the Gothic style following a number of redesigns which it has undergone over the ages.

History

The existence of a parish in Tyniec Mały was first noted in written sources back in 1353. The present church was erected in the years 1493-1516 as a Gothic edifice, with the dates referred to above being inscribed on the western gable and on the niche which houses the tabernacle. From ca. 1585 until 1654, the church served the needs of the Protestant community; in 1746, it has regained the parish church status, its new name being that of the church of St Hedwig (until 1945).

In 1752, the church was redesigned in the Baroque style, with the nave receiving a new, wooden cloister vault with a flat middle section. The windows of both the nave and sacristy were widened, with a new, wattle-and-daub western porch (which has not survived to the present day) and a tower annex being added. The church underwent renovation works on numerous occasions in both the 19th century and in the first quarter of the 20th century; in 1931, the church interiors were regothicised. The ceiling of the nave as well as the barrel vault inside the chancel (constructed either in the 17th century or in 1752) were replaced with vaulted ceilings of the groin type, featuring iron ribs (the so-called Rabitz vaulted ceilings). The semi-circular rood arch was replaced with a Gothic-style one, featuring a pointed-arch outline. A similar outline was also applied to the windows of the church, their edges lined with plasterwork surrounds. Both the flooring and the interior plaster finish were also subjected to renovation works.

In 1964, new painted decorations were executed by Ryszard Bielecki, while the Baroque western porch was torn down in 1995 and replaced with a new, brick structure reminiscent of its predecessor in terms of overall appearance, although slightly greater in size.

Description

The church is located in the middle of the village; it is surrounded by a cemetery circumscribed with a stone perimeter wall featuring an eastern access gate believed to have been erected somewhere around the mid-18th century, although this remains uncertain.

The church is oriented towards the east; it is a brick structure, its walls reinforced with buttresses. Some sections of the wall are made of partially vitrified bricks with a glazed surface. Designed on a rectangular floor plan, it features a narrower, rectangular chancel and a quadrangular tower which, somewhat unusually, adjoins the northern side of the chancel, with a sacristy occupying its ground floor level. The tower is topped with a tall hip roof. A rectangular wattle-and-daub annex from 1752 adjoins the western side of the tower. The western porch preceding the nave, on the other hand, is a brick structure which was erected in 1995. The nave and the chapel are covered with gable roofs clad with ceramic roof tiles; the chancel features a three-sided roof, while the tower annex is covered with a mono-pitched roof. The western gable features a plaster finish and is adorned with a decorative panel bearing the date 1493. The façades are topped with cornices, while the pointed-arch windows are framed with rectangular, plaster surrounds.

The church interior follows an aisleless layout, with the nave and chancel both featuring single-bay groin vaults constructed in 1931. The sacristy features a vaulted ceiling of the barrel type, with a lowered rise.

A Late Gothic sandstone tabernacle adorned with a coat of arms and the date 1516 is positioned against the eastern wall of the chancel. The main altarpiece, dating back to 1931, incorporates a number of Baroque sculptures, its retable replaced by a stained glass window with the portrayal of the Crucifixion (signed by F. Maner, 1931); there is also a Rococo tabernacle dating back to 1756 and a Mannerist pulpit from the second quarter of the 17th century, its woodcarved decorations dating back to ca. 1756. The pipe organ gallery dates back to the year 1750 or thereabouts.

A sandstone column shrine from the 15th-16th century is positioned in front of the wall which surrounds the church cemetery.

The historic monument is accessible to visitors.

Bibliography

  • Degen K., Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Landkreis Breslau, Frankfurt am Main 1965, pp. 301-305, fig. 30.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce. Seria Nowa, vol. IV, issue 2, Województwo wrocławskie, Sobótka, Kąty Wrocławskie i okolice, J. Pokora and M. Zlat (eds.), Warsaw 1991, pp. 147-149, fig. 65, 66.
  • Lutsch H., Verzeichnis der Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Schlesien, vol. II, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Landkreise des Reg.-Bezirk Breslau, Breslau 1889, p. 456.
  • Pilch J., Zabytki architektury Dolnego Śląska. Wrocław 1978, p. 280.
  • Pilch J., Leksykon zabytków architektury Dolnego Śląska. Warsaw 2005, p. 374.
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warsaw 2006, pp. 894-895.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: l. 1493-1516
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Tyniec Mały
  • Location: Voivodeship dolnośląskie, district wrocławski, commune Kobierzyce
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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