Góra Grodowa archaeological and geological reserve - Zabytek.pl
woj. świętokrzyskie, pow. kielecki, gm. Miedziana Góra-gmina wiejska
Location and description
Góra Grodowa in Tumlin is situated in the western part of the Tumlin Range of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, about 11 km south-west of Kielce. According to various sources, it rises 386, 394.6 or 399 m a.s.l. Its absolute height is about 100 m. The centre of worship was situated on the eastern summits of the mountain, on which fragments of stone-and-earth ramparts are visible, partly destroyed by the quarry. It is not quite clear if it covered only the area surrounded by the double line of ramparts, around the 19th century chapel (as proposed by E. Gąssowska), or also the easternmost uplift of Góra Grodowa, enclosed by a single embankment ring (as reconstructed by J. Kuczyński and Z. Pyzik). The western part of the structure is preserved in the form of a pass between the quarries and relics of two lines of ramparts running on the eastern and western sides of the brick chapel and moat between them. The ramparts have survived in places up to a height of 2 m. They originally measured about 5 m wide at the base. A third line for fortifications may have been situated to the west. They originally enclosed an area sized approx. 130x80 m. The eastern summit, sized approx. 25x50 m, is surrounded by a rampart on the eastern side, open to the west. The best-preserved fragments are about 1 m in height and about 2.5-4 m in width at the base. The inner moat, separating the mound plateau from the rampart, is about 6-7 m wide.
The supposed centre of worship probably operated on the eastern summits of Góra Grodowa before the mid-10th century. In the late 11th/early 12th century, the old worship ramparts were used in the construction of timber-and-earth defensive fortifications around the castle which was in existence no longer than several decades. The structure largely demolished by the quarry (no longer operational to the north and still in use to the south).
Condition and results of archaeological research
In 1958 and 1960, surface surveys were conducted, which recorded 5 sites in the eastern and south-eastern slopes of Góra Grodowa. In 1960, J. Kuczyński and Z. Pyzik made one excavation within the ramparts (to the west of the chapel, approx. 4.5 m from it) and two excavations in the eastern slope of the hill. In 1967, J. Kuczyński and B. Kowalczykowa carried out surveys on the rampart in the eastern part of the complex. In 1986, Eligia Gąssowska dug through the eastern rampart of the western part of the site. The absence of a cultural layer and medieval artefacts at the summit (and given that the possibility of complete destruction of build-ups during chapel construction and due to levelling was rejected) as well as the interpretation of the ramparts by analogy to Łysiec and Ślęża, made researchers adopt the proposition that a centre of worship existed at the site. The survey also determined that ramparts in the western part of the complex were built of stone rubble, and, in the eastern part, of stone and earth. They were dated to a period “before the mid-10th century”, although the age of a coal sample taken in 1986 from burnt material of the top part of the rampart, based on 14C analysis, falls within the 1047-1193 AD bracket. Research on the slopes of the hill revealed remains of two huts with hearths/fires, initially believed to date back to the 9th-11th centuries. An analysis of ceramic from the settlement, performed by C. Hadamik, made him change the dating to the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, which is consistent with the results of 14C dating of burnt rampart material, interpreted by the researcher as remains of wooden elements, e.g. palisade. For this reason, he considers the Tumlin site as a defensive complex, operating in the late 11th/early 12 century and probably during the 12th century, which was accompanied by an ancillary settlement on the eastern slope of the hill. While he does not rule out that the older stone rampart, which originally surrounded the site of tribal centre of worship, was subsequently used in building a castle in the 11th/12th centuries.
The site is accessible to visitors. It can be reached by the Edmund Massalski red trail.
compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 27-04-2016.
- Informator Archeologiczny. Badania 1967 r., s. 213-214
- E. Gąssowska, Sprawozdanie z badań archeologicznych przeprowadzonych w maju i czerwcu 1986 r. na Górze Grodowej w Tumlinie, gm. Zagnańsk, maszynopis w Archiwum WUOZ w Kielcach
- C. Hadamik, Pierwsze wieki historii Kielc. Kasztelania kielecka od przełomu XI i XII do połowy XIV stulecia, Kielce 2007, s. 198-218
- C. Hadamik, Co wiemy o wałach na Górze Grodowej w Tumlinie? [w:] K. Bracha, C. Hadamik (red.) „Sacrum pogańskie - sacrum chrześcijańskie”, Warszawa 2010, s. 193-210
- J. Kuczyński, Wyniki dalszych badań archeologicznych na Górze Grodowej pod Kielcami, „Rocznik Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1970, t. VI, s. 455-460
- J. Kuczyński, Z. Pyzik, Wyniki badań nad osadnictwem wczesnośredniowiecznym na Górze Grodowej, pow. Kielce, „Rocznik Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1967, t. IV, s. 93-107
- J. Kuczyński, Z. Pyzik, Ośrodek kultu pogańskiego na Górze Grodowej w Tumlinie, pow. Kielce [w:] A. Oborny i in. (red.) „Religia pogańskich Słowian. Sesja naukowa w Kielcach.”, Kielce 1968, s. 61-67
Category: Place of worship
Protection: Register of monuments
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_A_26_AR.23761