The palace complex - Zabytek.pl
The palace complex
woj. wielkopolskie, pow. leszczyński, gm. Święciechowa
The palace is surrounded by a landscape park from the same period, which replaced an Italian Renaissance garden. To the west of the residential complex, there is a farm complex comprising buildings from the late 19th and early 20th century.
The village of Trzebiny was mentioned in written sources for the first time in 1360 in connection with Wierzbięta of Trzebiny. In 1496, the village was the property of Jan and Mikołaj Kromno, heirs to the nearby villages of Piotrowice and Przybyszew, from which the names of their descendants were derived: the Trzebiński, Piotrowski, and Przybyszewski families. They remained the owners of Trzebiny until the end of the 16th century. The village had a number of owners in the 17th century. In 1629, the widow of Jan Piotrowski, burgrabia [burgrave] of Wschowa, sold her part of the estate to Stanisław Wilkowski. In 1676, the part belonging to the Przybyszewskis became part of the dowry of Krystyna Przybyszewska, who married Jan Melchior Gurowski, senator and castellan of Poznań. In 1698 and 1705, part of the village was pledged due to large debts. In 1709, Filip Zawadzki of the Korzbok coat of arms became the owner of the village for a short time. The Gurowskis must have bought back the pledged part of the estate several years later, as they are referred to as its owners again in documents dating from 1718. In 1749, Trzebiny belonged to Ignacy Nieżychowski, and in 1769 — to Adam Nieżychowski, who sold it to Jan Lipski of the Grabie coat of arms (who died in 1832 in Trzebiny). After Jan Lipski died, the estate was purchased by Carl Hermann Schmidt in 1834, and in 1859 — by Hugo von Unruh. In 1860, Trzebiny, along with the Piotrowice farm complex, was purchased by August Ferdynand Leesen und Gotha, who also became the owner of Drzeczkowo (Osieczna Commune) in 1861. Members of the Leesen family, successively: Georg Heinrich (from 1863), Carl Ferdinand August (from 1902), and Eberhard, remained the owners of Trzebiny until the end of World War II. In the 1920s, the estate was regarded as one of the most attractive in the Leszno Land.
The palace was built in the Baroque style in the late 17th century, most probably in the years 1680-1690, for Melchior Gurowski. It is believed that it was designed by Jan Catenazzi — an architect from Lombardy, working in Poland. The building was profoundly modified for the von Leesen family after 1860 (e.g. the inner courtyard was created then). At that time, the original Italian Renaissance garden was transformed into a landscape park.
The exact date of the establishment of the farm complex in Trzebiny is unknown. Most likely, the first farm complex belonging to this estate was the above-mentioned village of Piotrowice, situated approx. 2 km to the north of Trzebiny. Most likely, the new manor farm complex, being part of the palace complex, was built simultaneously with the construction of the original palace in the late 17th century or shortly after. The farm buildings which have survived to this day come from the late 19th and early 20th century.
The palace complex in Trzebiny remained the property of the von Leesen family until 1945, when it was taken over by the State Treasury. Between 1983 and 1986, the palace was renovated and regeneration works were carried out in the park. Starting from 1985, the palace housed an Archaeological Centre; currently, it houses the Field Department of the National Heritage Board of Poland. The buildings of the former manor farm are currently owned by a private agricultural farm.
The residential complex in Trzebiny is located in the southern part of the village. It is divided into two parts by the Krzycki Rów River. The palace complex is situated on its east side and the farm complex is situated on the west side. The palace is situated in the southern part of the landscape park (also having elements of a formal layout), which has an area of approx. 3.5 ha. On the south side, there is an elliptical driveway. In the park, on the central axis of the palace, there is a parterre having a formal pattern, with a path leading to a garden pavilion situated on a small hillock. To the west, there is a pond, irregular in shape.
The present form of the palace was shaped as a result of the modification of the original Baroque residence from the late 17th century, carried out after 1860. The building was redesigned in the Renaissance Revival style. It has a quadrangular floor plan with a rectangular inner courtyard, introduced during the said modification works, and square extensions at the corners. The palace has a compact, cuboidal form. The extensions are slightly taller than the main body. All parts are covered with flat roofs; the sections over the main body slightly slope towards the inner courtyard.
The walls are made of brick and covered with plaster. The basement rooms are covered with barrel vaults, barrel vaults with lunettes, and groin vaults; the ground floor rooms have groin vaults and barrel vaults with lunettes.
The external façades have two storeys and seven axes. As for the corner extensions, each façade has three storeys and one axis. The rectangular window openings are separated both horizontally — by decorative panels, and vertically — by giant order pilasters. The three central axes of the longer façades are flanked by double pilasters, forming narrow pseudo-avant-corpses. All façades are crowned with a three-band cornice decorated with rectangular panels separated by dentils, with pediments above the three central axes of the longer façades. At the ground floor level of the central axes of the longer façades, there are rectangular, round-arched door openings, flanked by diagonal embedded piers and topped with broken pediments with cartouches. There are steps in front of each entrance.
Originally, the palace had a three-bay layout with a hall on the central axis of the ground floor and an elegant drawing room on the first floor. Currently, the original layout is unidentifiable due to the construction of an inner courtyard during the modification works of 1860.
The complex of the historic farm buildings (a granary, a stable, a cowshed, a cowshed with a straw storeroom, and a distillery), surrounding the rectangular yard situated to the west of the palace, are examples of architecture typical of the late 19th and early 20th century. The cubical buildings have quadrangular floor plans and are covered with gable roofs. The walls, made of brick, rest on brick and cobblestone foundations. The façades of the cowshed containing a straw storeroom (currently in poor technical condition) and of the distillery have subtle architectural decorations. Three rooms of the stable are covered with groin vaults on arches, supported by round piers.
The site is inaccessible. The palace complex is currently the seat of the Field Department of the National Heritage Board of Poland. The farm facilities are the property of a private agricultural farm.
compiled by Anna Dyszkant, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 28-12-2015.
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Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_30_ZE.51878, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_30_ZE.7949