The burgstall, site no. 1, Terebiniec
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The burgstall is all that remains today of the mid-16th century castle erected by the Tęczyński noble family. It constitutes a valuable source of information about the fortified residences of the Lublin region.

Location and description

The site of the former castle, known locally as “Zamczysko” (The Burgstall), “Zameczek” (Castlette) or “Góra Rybki” (Fish Hill) is located within the territory of the village of Terebiniec, in the northern part of the village known locally as Kolonia Terebiniec (Terebiniec Colony). The site is located in the north-western section of an extensive loess promontory which projects into the old valley of the Huczwa river.

The motte, artificially separated from the extensive loess upland, takes the form of an irregular quadrangle, its dimensions being about 50 x 70 metres. Standing at about 9.5 metres tall above the valley level, the mound towers above the rest of the surrounding terrain. No remnants of the castle have survived on the motte itself. The only surviving traces discovered so far are the remains of earthen ramparts and the moat. Today, the site remains in a very poor condition due to deep tillage, with the site remaining in continuous agricultural use.

History

According to archival records from 1564, the castle was erected by Jan Tęczyński, the voivode of Sandomierz, who died in 1541. According to the data obtained in the course of archaeological research, the castle remained in constant use throughout the 16th century; it also remained inhabited during the 17th century, albeit to a lesser extent. It was abandoned either during the 17th century or at the turn of the 18th century, having suffered extensive damage during the turbulent period of the conflicts with the Cossacks as well as with Muscovy and Sweden.

The castle was originally located in the village of Terebiń, first mentioned as early as the year 1400. The fortified residence has first been mentioned in the inventory of the Steziricze (Stężyca) village in 1564; the document refers to the castle as having been founded by Jan Tęczyński, who died in 1541. The map prepared by F. von Mieg during the second half of the 18th century only shows traces of earthen fortifications with no buildings at all; the causeway which had once served as the main access path towards the castle from the north has also been depicted on the map. The first mentions of the site in the literature on the subject were made in 1902 by Hieronim Łopaciński, who noted that among the once impassable marshes a castle had once stood, with traces of the causeway that had led to its gates still visible in the surrounding terrain. Today, the marshes are all but completely drained; the men digging the trenches in the area came across large quantities of old weaponry including a few matchlock arquebuses as well as a great many human skeletons (...). The present owner of the site, Mr J. Pohorecki, ordered the hill to be ploughed, yielding a handsome collection of buried silver coins”.

During the 1980s, the owners of the land where the burgstall stood had the entire area levelled to make it more suited to agricultural use, which led to severe damage and changes as a result of which the current condition of the site can only be described as satisfactory at best. The earthen ramparts have been almost completely destroyed; during the surface survey within the framework of the “Architectural Picture of Poland” research project conducted back in 1978, these were still very much visible in the surrounding terrain.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The excavation research on the site was performed by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon in 2002, with a total of six excavations being made with an aggregate surface area of 90 square metres. The location and height plan of the site was drawn up in 2000 by Józef Niedźwiedź.

Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by Wiesław Koman in 1991.

As a result of the research performed, remains of an almost completely levelled earthen rampart with no traces of a timber structure have been identified towards the north-east as well as on the southern edge of the upland. In addition, a fragment of a dry moat towards the north-east has also been discovered, its depth being 3.5 metres from the ground level, while its maximum width was 6.5 metres. In the former inner courtyard of the now-vanished castle, a shallow cultural layer from the period during which the castle was inhabited has been found; this layer, however, has been severely damaged by deep tillage and bulldozing. Numerous fragments of clay vessels (including three fragments of half-maiolica vessels), ceramic tiles (including a single tile bearing the Topór coat of arms used by the Tęczyński family) as well as metal objects (mostly iron nails) have been unearthed on the site. In the central section of the burgstall where the former courtyard had most likely once been, two neolithic storage pits have also been discovered, while inside the excavation at the base of the hill archaeologists have found the remains of an early medieval cottage with a hearth in the corner.

Unlimited access to the historic site.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 27-10-2015.

Bibliography

  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, “Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. VI, sec. F, 1951(1957), pp. 105-107.
  • Łopaciński H., Sprawozdanie z działu archeologii przedhistorycznej na wystawach rolniczo-przemysłowej oraz przedmiotów sztuki i starożytności w Lublinie 1901 r., “Światowit”, vol. IV, 1902, p. 274.
  • Prusicka-Kołcon E., Sprawozdanie z badań sondażowych na terenie „Zamczyska” w Terebińcu, pow. hrubieszowski, w 2002 roku, “Archeologia Polski Środkowowschodniej”, vol. VIII, 2006, pp. 121-126.
  • Piotrowski M., Prusicka E., Zamki Kryłow i Terebiń - dwie fundacje rodu Tęczyńskich w świetle badań archeologicznych [in:] Zamki Lubelszczyzny w źródłach archeologicznych, collective work, Ewa Banasiewicz-Szykuła (ed.), Lublin 2015, pp. 271-294.
  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, pp. 60-61.
  • Janeczek A., Osadnictwo pogranicza polsko-ruskiego. Województwo bełskie od schyłku XIV do początku XVII w., Warsaw 1993, p. 349.
  • Kurtyka J., Latyfundium Tęczyńskie. Dobra i właściciele (XIV-XVII wiek). Cracow 1999, p. 15
  • Mieg F. von, Karte des Königsreich Galizien und Lodomerien 1:28800, years 1779-1782, original document available at the Vienna Kriegsarchiv, rps B. IX a. 390, microfilm available at the National Library.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XVI - pocz. XVIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Terebiniec
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district hrubieszowski, commune Werbkowice
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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