Parish church of Our Lady of Consolation and St Stanislaus, Szamotuły
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Parish church of Our Lady of Consolation and St Stanislaus

Szamotuły

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The Gothic parish church in Szamotuły is an example of a church from the first quarter of the 14th century, which was given its current form in the years 1513-1542 and is a three-nave basilica. The chancel, terminating in a straight arch, is the oldest part of the collegiate church which was awarded the title of a minor basilica in 2014. The church interior features cross-rib vaults. The church boasts impressive fittings, including a Gothic crucifix on a rood beam from 1370 or the late-Renaissance main altar from circa 1616. The Baroque side altar in the southern nave contains an icon of Our Lady of Kazan from the first half of the 17th century, venerated by the faithful as Our Lady of Consolation - Lady of Szamotuły. In addition, there is a late-Renaissance headstone of Jakub Rokossowski (who died in 1580) and a bronze tombstone of Andrzej Szamotulski, who died in 1511, created by Peter Vischer in Nuremberg.

History

Szamotuły obtained municipal rights in 1284. (?). The new settlement was created to the south-west of Old Szamotuły. The site was renovated in 1423 by way of a charter granted by Władysław Jagiełło to brothers Dobrogost and Wincenty Szamotulski. For several centuries, Szamotuły belonged to the Nałęcz-Szamotulski family. In the 15th century, walls were built around the town. In the same century, the town itself was also split between two lines of the Szamotulski family. One part of the family, bearing the name of Świdwa, owned the Poznańskie suburb, and the other owned the Wronieckie suburb, which in 1513 became property of the Górka family. It is here that an impressive residence was built, which has survived to this day and functions as a museum. The castle in the southern part of the town was demolished (at one point in time there used to be two castles in Szamotuły) and a monastery of the Reformers was created on its remains. In later centuries, Szamotuły was an important centre for religious dissenters.

- the first mention of the church dates back to 1298

- 1423 - construction of a collegiate church of St Stanislaus the Bishop, with the Świdwa-Szamotulski brothers providing the funds

- by the end of the 15th century - two chapels were added to the existing church at the chancel, as well as the chapel of the Holy Trinity

- 1513-1542 - the church underwent full-scale modification and was assigned its current function owing to the funds of Łukasz Górka; the chancel was narrowed and extended upwards; the main nave was narrowed, the chapels were modified, new pillars and inter-nave arcades as well as ceilings were constructed

- 1569-1594 - the church was passed to religious dissenters

- 1772 - the church was covered with a new roof

- 1884-1890 - the interior was plastered, a porch was added on the southern side, the bell tower above the last western bay of the southern nave was removed.

- 1949 - renovation of the church

- 1979-1983 - a new sacristy was embedded in the northern nave on the eastern side.

Description

Szamotuły - a district town located in the Poznań Lake Region, by the Sama river, approx. 35 km to the north-west of Poznań. An important node - a junction of roads to Czarnków, Oborniki, Pniewy, Poznań and Wronki. The town is located by the railway from Poznań to Szczecin. The parish church of Our Lady of Consolation and St Stanislaus is situated to the north-west of the market square, at Kapłańska Street, at the edge of the old town. Surrounded with a wall, it features a gate-cum-bell tower which faces east, and another gate which faces west and is the starting point of a path leading to the graveyard. On the eastern side, there is a bell tower from 1930, designed by architect Stefan Cybichowski. The wall is surrounded by a ring of chestnuts and lime trees.

The church is an oriented basilica built of bricks arranged in a Polish pattern on a rectangular floor plan and features three naves with seven bays and no externally distinct (historically narrower) two-bay chancel terminating in a straight wall. A porch was added on the southern side. The body of the church features buttresses. The southern buttress in the western façade transitions into a semi-circular fortified tower. In the northern façade, a cylindrical stairwell on a stone plinth abuts the oblique buttress. The church is covered with a tall gable roof with a single roof ridge, the side naves feature mono-pitched roofs clad with tiles, and the staircase tower is crowned with a conical roof. The western façade from the 1st half of the 16th century features three portals (two side portals from the 19th century) with windows above. The window in the main nave is tall with a newer profile in the top section and topped with a stepped gable. The church façades feature buttresses, stepped parts, stepped top sections, pinnacles, cornices and friezes. Above the former windows of the side naves, a stepped parapet can be seen which marks the original height of the naves. The window openings in the main nave are partially bricked-up at the bottom and topped with pointed arches.

The main nave of the church features five bays. Two bays of the chancel are separated with a rood arch in the main nave. The bays in the side naves are separated with pronounced supporting arches. The eastern bay of the northern nave houses the sacristy, and above it, there is a library on the first floor. The bays of the main nave and of the chancel are rectangular, and the bays of the side naves are nearly square-shaped. The inter-nave arcades have pointed arches and are mounted on square pillars and profiled in brick. The southern nave features lierne vaults of varying layout. In the main nave and in the side naves by the pillars, the ribs flow onto chalice-shaped corbels and onto profiled supporting ribs. The sacristy features a barrel vault. The bottom parts of the bricked-up windows are covered with painted decorations which were designed by Wacław Taranczewski in 1952 and painted by Józef Flieger and Alojzy Gielniak.

Church fittings - very lavish. They include: the late-Renaissance main altar from 1616 with sculptures and valuable paintings. In the rear section of the southern nave, there is a Baroque altar made of black wood with an icon of Our Lady of Kazan in a silver robe from the 1st half of the 17th century. There is a miraculous painting of Our Lady of Consolation - Lady of Szamotuły which has been worshipped to this day. The side sections of the altarpiece contain paintings of St Stanislaus the Bishop and St Adalbert as well as St Stephen and St Lawrence created by Adam Swach (1701). The rood beam features a Gothic crucifix from circa 1370. Particularly noteworthy are the late-Renaissance headstone of Jakub Rokossowski (who died in 1580), created by Hieronim Canavesi, as well as the bronze tombstone of Andrzej Szamotulski, who died in 1511, created by Peter Vischer in Nuremberg.

The neo-Gothic gate-cum-bell tower form the second half of the 19th century contains a crucifix from the third quarter of the 18th century which comes from a Post-Reformation church. In the wall of the bell tower, there is an embedded Renaissance plaque coming from the castle, with the date 1518 (?) and shields with the coats of arms of Łódź and of the Nałęcz family which are held by knights, and with an inscription mentioning Łukasz Górka, castellan of Poznań and general starost of Greater Poland.

The site is accessible to visitors. Visiting the building inside is possible by prior arrangement. More information on the parish and the Holy Mass schedule can be found on the website of the Poznań archdiocese at: www.archpoznan.pl

compiled by Teresa Palacz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 7-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Kowalski J., Gotyk wielkopolski. architektura sakralna XIII-XVI w., Poznań 2010.
  • Kohte J., Verzeichnis der Kunstdenkmaeler der Provinz Posen, Bd. III, Berlin 1896.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Ruszczyńska T., Sławska A. (red.), t. 5, z. 23 pow. szamotulski, s. 23-29, Warszawa 1966.
  • Tomala J., Murowana architektura romańska i gotycka w Wielkopolsce, t. 1, s. 412-413.
  • Dubowski A., Zabytkowe kościoły Wielkopolski, Poznań 1956.
  • Gotyckie kościoły w Wielkopolsce, Maluśkiewicz P. (red.), Poznań 2008.
  • Łęcki Wł., Wielkopolska - słownik krajoznawczy, Poznań 2002.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1423 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Kapłańska 12, Szamotuły
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district szamotulski, commune Szamotuły - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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