Hillfort, Świniarc
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
photo

Example of early medieval stronghold located within the area of Lubawska land, constituting one of administrative and economic Piast centers on the borderland of Poland and Prussia.

Location and description

The structure is located by the road in the village of Świniarc, on the culmination of a small hill, approx. 100 m from the western shore of Zwiniarz lake. Originally the hillfort had a shape of an elipse, and the ramparts surrounding it had the dimensions of 70 x 90 m at its basis. The height of the ramparts from the basis to the crown reaches 12 m, and from the maidan surface of the hillfort - approx. 3 m. The element additionally strengthening the defensive value is the preserved from the western side and north-western side deep, post-glacial gorge defined by some researchers as a moat. In the preserved part of the ramparts there is no visible lowering suggestive of the remnants of the gate. Most probably the gateway was located in the eastern part of the stronghold, which was destroyed in the 1970s as a result of road construction. Thus, currently the hillfort has a shape of an elongated semicircle.

History

Archeological survey enabled the distinction of two phases of settlement of the hillfort, but the traces of the older one are so dim that the time differences between them were not identified. The period of functioning of the stronghold dates back to the 12th - 13th century. The hillfort in Świniarc in older literature is also known under the name of Łążyn. It was first mentioned in 1881 by Gotfryd Ossowski, and in the inter-war period it was described by Władysław Łęga.

Condition and results of archaeological research

First surveys of verification nature were conducted in 1968 by Andrzej Kola - Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Subsequent surveys were conducted in 1990 by Wojciech Chudziak and Paweł Gurtowski - Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. As a result, an early medieval chronology of the site was confirmed and the build-ups of the maidan adjoining the rampart were documented. In 2005, as part of the research project on early medieval hillforts of the Slavic-Prussian borderland, subsequent excavations were performed and they were conducted by Kazimierz Grążawski on behalf of the Museum in Brodnica. As a result of these, the remains of the stone face of the rampart from the side of maidan were revealed. Also the mobile historic material in the form of fragments of pottery and an iron axe and a fitting, and numerous fragments of animal bones and fish scales were registered.

The historical building is open to visitors.

Compiled by Adam Mackiewicz, 6.12.2014.



Bibliography

  • Grążawski K., Z najnowszych badań pogranicza słowiańsko-pruskiego w rejonie lubawsko-iławskim, „Pruthenia”, 2006, t. 2, s. 24-25
  • Grążawski K., Ziemia Lubawska na pograniczu słowiańsko-pruskim w VII - XIII w. Studiom nad rozwojem osadnictwa, Olsztyn 2009, s. 165-166
 

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XII-XIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Świniarc
  • Location: Voivodeship warmińsko-mazurskie, district nowomiejski, commune Grodziczno
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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