Hillfort, Świecie nad Osą
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
photo

The hillfort is one of the few well-preserved sites of this kind in the Chełmno region. Its origins are linked to the formation of hillfort culture in the Polish territories during the 10th century. Due to its location at the edge of a moraine elevation right next to the tunnel valley formed around the Lutryna river, the hillfort remains visible from afar, especially from the southern and western side. Due to its picturesque location combined with the diverse nature of the local topography, the presence of the hillfort adds to the beauty of the surrounding landscape.

Location and description

The hillfort is situated in the middle of the village, alongside the crossroads, with one of the roads leading towards Linowo and Lisnowo, while the second one leads to Mędrzyce. The site itself is positioned at the edge of a moraine upland, right next to the tunnel valley formed around the Lutryna river. The site is located about 200 metres east of the Lutryna river and about 950 metres east of the Lutryna river mouth, which flows into the larger Osa river.

The site, located on an elliptical hill positioned alongside the north-south axis, consists of the remnants of a bipartite fortified complex: the ancillary settlement and the hillfort proper. The traces of the hillfort are located on the northern part of the hill. They occupy a surface of about 3800 square metres. Remnants of an earthen rampart whose crest rises about 2.5 metres above the inner yard level can be seen on the northern and north-eastern side of the site. The remains of the ancillary settlement can be found in the southern part of the hill. They occupy a surface of approximately 2000 square metres. The difference in elevation between the yard of the hillfort and the yard of the ancillary settlement is about 10 metres in total. The difference in elevation between the top section of the remnants of the rampart which had once surrounded the hillfort and the base of the hill is more than 30 metres.

History

Based on the artefacts obtained in the course of archaeological surveys, including mostly pottery fragments, it has been concluded that the hillfort saw two distinct periods of habitation. The earlier phase is believed to have taken place during the second half of the 10th century as well as in the 11th century. The second, more recent phase occurred in the 13th century, ending in the early 14th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological excavations were carried out on the site in the years 1967, 1976-1980 and 1990.

In 1967, R. Boguwolski conducted the first exploratory survey, creating an excavation in the middle of the inner yard of the hillfort, its size being 4.5 x 4.5 metres. In years 1976-1980, a wide-area survey was conducted by R. Boguwolski, R. Kirkowski, M. Kochanowski, A. Kola and W. Matuszewska-Kola. A total of 16 excavations were made on the site of the former hillfort, their dimensions being 4.5 × 4.5 metres; in addition, 17 excavations of the same size were made on the site of the ancillary settlement. In 1990, another exploratory survey was conducted by W. Chudziak, P. Gurtowski and M. Grupa. These involved a single excavation, 3 × 1 metres in size.

In the course of the survey, valuable information concerning the use of the site was obtained. The presence of cultural layers on the site of the former hillfort was established, their thickness being between 0.6 and 2.5 metres. Remnants of half-earth lodges and hearths have been unearthed. The thickness of cultural layers in the former ancillary settlement was between 0.3 and 0.6 metres. A total of 20 pits of various shapes have been discovered, although their function remains unknown. A number of moveable artefacts have been unearthed, including several thousand pottery fragments, iron objects such as a spur, arrowheads, a bolt, knives, buckles, a weighing dish, horseshoes, scissors, a shovel blade and nails, as well as fragments of horn artefacts and animal bones.

The hillfort is accessible all year round.

compiled by Leszek Kotlewski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Toruń, 04-07-2014.

Bibliography

  • Boguwolski R., Kola A., Poliński D., Świecie Nad Osą, [in:] Wczesnośredniowieczne grodziska ziemi chełmińskiej. Katalog źródeł, Toruń 1994
  • Boguwolski R., Kurzyńska M., Archeologia północnej części ziemi chełmińskiej, Grudziądz 2011

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: 2. poł. X w. – XI w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Świecie nad Osą
  • Location: Voivodeship kujawsko-pomorskie, district grudziądzki, commune Świecie nad Osą
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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