Archaeological reserve. Early medieval hillfort, Stawy
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Archaeological reserve. Early medieval hillfort

Stawy

photo

One of the larger crown hillforts in the Małopolska (Lesser Poland) region. The structure is believed to have originally served as the seat of the castellan of Czechów.

Location and description

The site is situated on an islet which lies among the wetlands of the Nida river, between the villages of Stawy, Motkowice and Umianowice.

The site of the hillfort occupies nearly 8 hectares of land. The main section of the hillfort was located at the western edge of the hill. An ancillary settlement is known to have adjoined the hillfort to the east. The hillfort itself was surrounded by a dual arrangement of earthen ramparts, designed on an elliptical plan. The hillfort proper also featured an additional system of double ramparts. Unfortunately, all those fortified structures have been almost completely obliterated through tillage. Vestigial traces of residential structures have been discovered in the inner yard of the hillfort, including several pits and earth lodges with stone hearths; all these structures are believed to originate from the period when the area in question was the site of an open settlement. However, no structures dating back to the period of existence of the hillfort itself have been discovered, which may suggest that the site served as a place of refuge and was not inhabited on a permanent basis.

History

Traces of both Stone Age and Lusatian culture settlements have also been identified on the site. The early medieval settlement was most likely in existence between the 9th and the 10th century, after which it was lost to the blaze. Later on, the site thereof was occupied by a fortified structure, believed to have been erected in the 11th-12th century. The hillfort is commonly believed to have served as the seat of the Czechów castellan, although if we were to accept this theory, we would also need to assume that the site remained inhabited until at least the mid- 13th century. In addition, traces of open settlements have been identified in the area surrounding the hillfort, for example in the village of Umianowice. Today, the site serves as an arable field.

Condition and results of archeological research

The first references to the existence of the hillfort were made in 1887 by reverend Władysław Siarkowski. The structure was discovered and documented in 1955 by D. Woźniak, who referred to it as an archaeological site in the village of Wygoda. In the 1960s, Elżbieta Dąbrowska and Zofia Wartołowska have made inspection visits to the site. Excavations followed in the years 1968-74, conducted by Zofia Woźnicka, with cooperation from Jerzy Gula towards the end of the project.

The site is open to visitors. The artefacts recovered from the site are kept at the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw, the National Museum in Kielce, the Archaeological Museum in Cracow and the Archaeological Outpost of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Igołomia.

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 21-10-2015

Bibliography

  • Informator archeologiczny, 1969, pp. 295-296
  • Informator archeologiczny, 1970, pp. 320-321
  • Informator archeologiczny, 1971, pp. 207-208
  • Informator archeologiczny, 1972, pp. 225-226
  • Informator archeologiczny, 1973, pp. 228-229
  • Informator archeologiczny, 1975, pp. 201-202
  • Dąbrowska E., Sprawozdanie z badań powierzchniowych prowadzonych w 1960 r. w dorzeczu Nidy, “Sprawozdania Archeologiczne”, vol. XVI, 1965, p. 389
  • Dąbrowska E., Studia nad osadnictwem wczesnośredniowiecznym ziemi wiślickiej, Wrocław 1965, p. 254
  • Pałucki W., Kasztelania czechowska, Warsaw, 1964
  • Poleski J., Wczesnośredniowieczne grody w dorzeczu Dunajca, Kraków 2004, pp. 424-425
  • Siarkowski W., Wiadomości o zabytkach przedhistorycznych w okolicach Pińczowa, “Zbiór Wiadomości do Antropologii Krajowej”, vol. XII, p. 48
  • Wawrzeniecki M., Zbiory wykopalisk przedhistorycznych przy Muzeum Oddziału PTK w Kielcach, “Pamiętnik Fizyograficzny”, vol. 22, 1914, p. 10

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XI – XII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Stawy
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district jędrzejowski, commune Imielno
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

Licence:

report issue with this site

Geoportal Map

Google Map

See also in this area