Archaeological site – conical hill fort no. 2, Śmiechowice
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Archaeological site – conical hill fort no. 2



Hill fort no. 2 in Śmiechowice is probably a relic of the local medieval watchtower, one of the complex of fortified settlements located on the northern side of the Odra river, in the area of the Silesian Cutting (Polish: Przesieka Śląska).

Location and description

The hill fort is located in the forest, about 1,400 m south-west of the southern edge of the village of Tarnowiec, and about 500 m west of hill fort no. 1.

The hill fort located in a wooded area is oval in shape and measures about 20 m by 25 m. The flat and slightly concave inner yard measuring about 19 m by 20 m at the base is surrounded by a shallow moat measuring about 3-5 m in width. The inner yard measures about 2-3 m in height, while the moat is approximately 70 cm deep. The structure is well-preserved. It is clearly visible against the background of trees in late autumn or spring.


Exploratory surveys of the site indicated that the origin of the hill fort goes back to the Late Middle Ages (13th-14th century).

Condition and results of archaeological research

The hill fort was surface-examined in the interwar period, among others by M. Hellmich in 1931, who compiled an inventory, and by J. Kaźmierczyk and Z. Trudzik in 1957. Surveys were carried out by Z. Bagniewski and J. Romanow in 1970. Excavation of the inner yard revealed several fragments of turned vessels dated to the 13th-14th centuries. A contour plan of the hill fort was drawn up in 1998. Hill fort no. 2 in Śmiechowice (formerly Tarnowiec no. 2) is one of the complex of fortified settlements located on the northern side of the Odra river. It is difficult to determine what function it served in the Middle Ages; perhaps it was a watchtower. It was certainly one of the structures located in the northern part of the area of the Silesian Cutting.

The hill fort is situated in an area managed by the State Forests. Hiking or cycling lovers will reach the structure by forest roads from Tarnowiec towards the south-west. The structure is located on the north side of the road.

compiled by Krzysztof Spychała, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 11-12-2014.


  • Hellmich M., Burgheugel im Bober-Katzbachgebiet, [in:] Altschlesische Blaetter, 1936, issue: 3/4, p. 104;
  • Kozłowska W., Wczesnośredniowieczne grody woj. opolskiego na tle warunków fizjograficzno - gospodarczych, [in:] Kwartalnik Opolski, vol. 1, item 37 (as Tarnowiec);
  • Bagniewski Z., Romanow J., Sprawozdanie z badań sondażowych grodzisk powiatu brzeskiego, [in:] Terenowe badania archeologiczne na Opolszczyźnie rok 1970, 1970, p. 37 (as Tarnowiec);
  • Kaźmierczyk J., Macewicz K., Wuszkan S., Studia i materiały do osadnictwa Opolszczyzny wczesnośredniowiecznej, 1977, pp. 513-515 (as Tarnowiec);
  • Voivodeship State Archives in Wrocław, files of a team of the Self-Government Department of the Silesian Province in Wrocław, file number: 668, file title: Forst Stoberau;
  • Archives of the Voivodeship Monuments Protection Office in Opole, file no. A-293/70, and Record Sheet of the Śmiechowice Archaeological Site no. 2, AZP 84-34/5.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XIII-XIV w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Śmiechowice
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district brzeski, commune Lubsza
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland


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