Parish church complex of SS. Adalbert and Stanislaus, Rzeszów
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Parish church complex of SS. Adalbert and Stanislaus

Rzeszów

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It is one of the most valuable and oldest architectural complexes in the city, composed of a Gothic-Baroque church, Baroque bell tower and churchyard formerly used as a cemetery. The complex features a very valuable interior fittings, including a group of grave sculptures of the Rzeszowski family. It is a dominant spatial and architectural feature in the old town of Rzeszów.

History

The first church of SS. Felix and Adauctus in Rzeszów was built after 1340 and mentioned in 1363. It was destroyed in a major city fire in 1427. The new church of SS. Adalbert and Stanislaus was built before 1448 as a one-nave church, with a polygonally enclosed chancel and a sacristy to the north. In 1509, the church was fortified. The church roof and interior were destroyed by fire in 1621. During the reconstruction in 1623-1640, on the initiative of Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza, the central aisle was extended by the addition of side aisles. The next altars were erected by 1745. In the fourth quarter of the Jan17th century, a free-standing bell tower was built according to a design by Jan Chrzciciel Belotti. In 1750-1754, the parish church underwent restoration funded by the Lubomirski family, the then town owners. In this form, the church was reflected in the plan by Karol Henryk Wiedemann from 1762. At that time, the church adjoined a cemetery surrounded by a wall, whose gate was the aforementioned tower. In the first half of the 19th century, the cemetery adjoining the church was liquidated and the fence was dismantled. The tower roof was also replaced, removing the Baroque cupola. In 1858-1861, 1911-1913, 1932-1933, 1964-1966 the church interior underwent restoration, in 1999-2003 the interior underwent comprehensive conservation, and in 2006-2010 the façades underwent renovation involving restoring the Gothic brick bond. The bell tower also underwent renovation and conservation.

Description

The parish church complex in Rzeszów is located in the north-western corner of the historic old town, at Plac Farny created after the liquidation of the cemetery surrounding the church. The church is oriented towards the east and constitutes a dominant architectural feature of the urban and architectural inner part of Plac Farny. A parish tower is located south of the church and forms the end point of the urban axis of 3 Maja Street.

The church was originally a single-nave hall church; during the seventeenth-century extension, it was transformed into a three-aisle basilica church. The three-bay Gothic chancel is built on a rectangular floor plan, closed off on three sides to the east. The rectangular three-bay central aisle is slightly wider than the chancel. The rectangular three-bay Baroque side aisles from the first half of the 17th century are closed off on three sides to the west because of the addition to the corner buttresses of the main aisle. To the north, the chancel adjoins a multi-storey annex housing a sacristy, vestibule and staircase on the ground floor; the staircase leads to the upper storey, where there are two rooms: treasury and library.

Under the chancel there is a crypt, and under the aisle body there are inaccessible basements. The chancel and main aisle are covered with gable roofs of the same inclination, with a roof ridge over the main aisle on a lower level and a three-sided end section over the apse; the side aisles and northern annex are topped with shed roofs. The eastern end section of the ridge of the roof over the main aisle features an octagonal masonry Baroque steeple turret.

The church is a masonry structure made of brick and set on a stone foundation. The roof is covered with copper sheet.

After recent conservations, the façades of the chancel, front façade and buttresses are characterised by exposed Gothic brick bond with burr bricks laid in a diamond-shaped pattern. The façades of the aisles and annex are plastered. The axis of the front façade is pierced by the main entrance with a Baroque portal. Above the entrance, there is a window topped with a semicircular arch and a round window at the top. The chancel features a preserved tall Gothic windows with a pointed arch at its top. In the main aisle and side aisles, there are semicircular windows. The chancel and main aisle are supported by tall buttresses, with stepped buttresses in the chancel and western corners of the main aisle.

Inside, between the main aisle and the side aisles there are two massive pillars with pilasters supporting entablature with a pronounced cornice. On the axes of the pilasters, there are niches with statues of the church founders and owners of the town from the Rzeszowski family. The bays of the side aisles are connected by arcaded walkways. The choir gallery is supported by arcades. The semicircular rood arch rests on pillars adjoining the walls. The chancel is covered with a stellar vault with ribs running down onto supports adjoining the walls. The central aisle is covered with a barrel vault with lunettes, while the side aisles are topped with groin vaults.

The most valuable interior fittings include Renaissance gravestones of the Rzeszowski family members, dating from the late 16th and early 17th centuries and decorating the northern wall of the chancel, funded probably by Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza; the main altar with the painting "Crucifixion of Christ" and the rood beam designed in the Regency style, from around 1730; Rococo side altars and pulpit from the first half of the 18th century.

The bell tower is built of brick on a square floor plan, multi-storey, plastered, and covered with a dome-shaped cupola with a tin statue of an angel at the top. The façades are decorated with panels and rusticated finishes in the corners. On the lower storey the north façade is pierced by an entrance gate topped with an arch; the south façade is characterised by panels of the same size, which is a remnant of the old entrance to the cemetery. Window openings can be found in all four façades: round windows on the first storey, rectangular windows topped with semicircular arches on the second and third storey. In the upper part of the third storey, there are clock faces. Inside the tower, there is a bell from 1816.

The churchyard, which was formerly used as a cemetery, now is paved with concrete and surrounds the church. The cemetery originally covered a larger area. Its original boundaries are T. Kościuszki Street, Grunwaldzka Street, J. Matejki Street and Plac Farny. After the liquidation of the cemetery, a tenement house at 1 Grunwaldzka Street was built in its eastern part.

The monument is open to visitors.

compiled by Mieczysław Kuś, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 23-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Borowiejska-Birkenmajerowa M., Rozwój przestrzenny, [in:] Dzieje Rzeszowa, vol. I, Rzeszów 1994, pp. 167-191.
  • Encyklopedia Rzeszowa, 2nd Edition: Kościół Bernardynów, prepared by Malczewski J., Rzeszów 2011, p. 316.
  • Record sheet, Kościół parafialny p.w. Św. Stanisława i Św. Wojciecha, prepared by Malczewski J., Rzeszów 1993, Archives of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments, Rzeszów Regional Office.
  • Record sheet, Dzwonnica przy kośc. parafialnym (Pl. Farny 8), prepared by Żurawska T., Rzeszów 1959, Archives of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments, Rzeszów Regional Office.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce. Powiat Rzeszów - miasto Rzeszów, prepared by Dunin-Fishinger B., Fishinger A., pp. 1-5, typescript available at the Archives of the National Heritage Board of Poland, Regional Office in Rzeszów.
  • Podkarpacki Biuletyn Konserwatorski, vol. I: Kompleksowa konserwacja i restauracja zabytkowego wystroju kościoła farnego w Rzeszowie, prepared by Filip M., Przemyśl 2003, pp. 275-279.
  • Podkarpacki Biuletyn Konserwatorski, vol. II: Kościół parafialny p.w. śś. Stanisława i Wojciecha (Fara) przy Pl. Farnym, prepared by Kosiorowski J., Przemyśl 2007, pp. 165.
  • Podkarpacki Biuletyn Konserwatorski, vol. III, part II: Kościół parafialny p.w. św. Stanisława i św. Wojciecha - Fara, Pl. Farny, prepared by Kosiorowski J., Przemyśl 2011, p. 200.
  • Zaucha T. Konserwacja zabytków. Restauracje kościoła farnego, [in:] Dzieje Rzeszowa, vol. II, part W czasach autonomii galicyjskiej, Rzeszów 1998, pp. 505-509.
  • Zaucha T. Kościoły, klasztory i parafie dawnego Rzeszowa, [in:] Architektura i sztuka kościoła farnego, Rzeszów 2001, pp. 59-74.
  • Website: Roman Catholic Parish Church of St. Adalbert and Stanislaus in Rzeszów. History: http://www.fara.rzeszow.pl/historia (access date: 23.11.2014)

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: po 1427 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: pl. Farny 5, Rzeszów
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district Rzeszów, commune Rzeszów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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