Fortified manor house complex, Rzemień
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Fortified manor house complex

Rzemień

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The fortified complex consisting of a manor house — residential and defensive tower with earthen bastion fortifications and palace is one of the few monuments of defensive and residential architecture dating from the Middle Ages, with bastion fortifications, which has survived in good condition to this day; it was enriched with gates, fortifications of the outer ward and later park with a palace. It is one of the most valuable monuments of defence architecture in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship.

History

The manor house with fortifications in Rzemień was built in the 15th century was the seat of the following families: Tarnowski, Lubomirski, Sanguszko, Stadnicki, Rey, Bogusz and Szaszkiewicz.

The oldest complex structure, manor house in the form of a residential and defensive tower was built by the Tarnowski family in the 15th century or early 16th century, and altered by Stanisław Lubomirski in 1625. Later, the structure deteriorated and in the 19th century it lied in ruins. In 1857, it was rebuilt again in the Gothic Revival style on the initiative of Feliks Bogusz; the work involved upward extension by one storey, extension to the vestibule, changes in the layout of the interiors, and addition of a crenellation. In 1866, ownership of the property passed to Gustaw Szaszkiewicz through his marriage with Aleksandra Bogusz. In 1905, he planned to demolish the tower; at that time Zygmunt Hendel drew up an inventory of the tower and reconstruction designs. In 1931, the tower was renovated for Gustaw and Antoni Szaszkiewicz under the supervision of Franciszek Mączyński, partly based on the inventory and reconstruction designs by Hendel. The structure was extended by adding a round fortified tower and two annexes to the north and west, the façade was clad with new brick, the interiors were renovated, and the level of the courtyard around the building was lowered. After 1946, the manor house housed a boarding house of the Agricultural School Complex. In the late 20th and early 21st century, the new owners carried out full-scale renovation to the building and its surroundings, after which they were in exemplary condition.

The manor house and defensive tower fortifications were mentioned in 1546 and 1784, partly altered around 1831. In 1852, through the efforts of Gustaw and Antoni Szaszkiewicz, two gatehouses were erected on the north-south axis. The buildings have survived in a slightly altered form to this day.

The outer ward fortifications built in the 17th century have survived in a large part, where the water system, several ponds on the Tuszymka river have also been preserved.

In 1869, on the initiative of Gustaw Szaszkiewicz, the construction of a multi-storey palace on the site formerly occupied by a garden pavilion began. In 1931, the palace was extended according to a design by Zygmunt Hendel. In the 1960s, the palace building was adapted for use as a boarding school and school buildings were built in the area of the park.

Description

The complex is situated in a vast valley of the upper Wisłoka river, at a distance of about 500 m from the river, in a flat area, surrounded by ponds, on the eastern side of the road from Dębica to Mielec.

The manor house in the form of a residential and defensive tower, chronologically the oldest part of the complex, located inside the ramparts, quadrangular in outline, with bastions at the corners is situated in the western part of a large complex, which also includes a park with a palace and outer ward fortifications, located to the north and west of it. Earthen bastion fortifications with curtain walls measuring 4-5 m in height from the side of the courtyard are surrounded by the pond waters to the east and west, the Tuszymka river to the south, and a watercourse to the north.

The manor house dating from the Middle Ages has lost its original design scheme as a result of alterations. In the mid-19th century, it was extended upwards by adding a further storey and topped with a Gothic Revival crenellation, in the 1930s a utility storey was added to the developed crenellation and finial in the form of a tented roof, a staircase was added to the western wall of the tower, and the structure was extended by adding two annexes; the upward extension to one of the annexes was enriched with a Gothic Revival loggia intended for the eyes of guests.

At present, the manor house has a nearly square floor plan with annexes: tower on a circular floor plan and rectangular annex with a loggia on the upper storey to the west and a small annex on a rectangular floor plan to the north. The straight cuboidal body of the five-storey manor house is embellished with a cylindrical tower, two annexes and small open bay window. The annex to the west includes a corner arcaded loggia on the upper storey. The main body is covered with a tented roof, the tower with a conical roof, both annexes with multi-pitched roofs. The manor house is built of full bricks in the Polish (Gothic) pattern, on the outside it is not plastered, the lower parts of the basement are made of stone, foundations made of stone ashlars bonded without a mortar, set on piles on quicksand.

The basement rooms are covered with barrel vaults, the ground floor with groin vaults, the upper storey is topped with a reinforced concrete ceiling from the 1930s, and the roof with wooden roof truss is clad with ceramic Roman tiles.

The façades on the outside are clad with brick, without partitions, and topped with a crenellated attic running around the entire building. The windows are framed by stone surrounds. The southern façade is fitted with two windows per each storey, on two axes, with irregularity on the third storey. The western façade is pierced by windows on three storeys, arranged in two axes, a bit wider on the fourth storey, with a small open bay window with a copper roof at the northern edge on the third storey. The lower part of the northern façade is covered by an annex with a modern superstructure; the fourth storey features windows on two axes. The western façade was extended by an annex consisting of a vestibule with a loggia and a cylindrical tower with slender windows.

The rooms on the ground floor and first floor are arranged in a one-and-a-half-bay layout; the second floor consists of two rooms connected by an arcade, the tower has a staircase.

The interiors feature the preserved original stone classicist fireplace and stone portal bearing the date 1625 made by architect Maciej Trapola. The interior fittings are a modern addition.

The complex also includes earthen bastion fortifications, quadrangular in outline, with bastions in the corners, pierced by masonry gates in the northern and southern curtain wall.

Earthen outer ward fortifications are located north of the manor house fortifications, are arranged in the full pentagon outline; the area inside the fortifications was adapted for use as a sports field.

The palace is situated in the northern part of the complex, with its front façade facing the south, built on a rectangular floor plan with two wings of different width added transversely. The central part includes an avant-corps, with an added portico and terrace on pillars. The building is built of brick, multi-storey, and has a basement underneath some of its sections; it is covered with a multi-hipped roof, with the three-storeyed part including an avant-corps topped with a steep conical roof. The front façade is 12-axial, the northern 11-axial, and the eastern 5-axial; all are laid out asymmetrically, with a cornice between the storeys and string course, with banded rustication on the ground floor, with windows framed by surrounds with a keystone; and also with window headers to the north on the upper storey. The interior layout is comprised of two bays.

The park which is a remnant of the landscape complex from the second half of the 19th century has retained numerous old trees and expanded water system in the form of rivers, channels and ponds.

The manor house is private property; however, its owners allow access by prior arrangement.

compiled by ara Potera, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 02-07-2014.

Bibliography

  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Kolbuszowa, Mielec i okolice, Śnieżyńska-Stolotowa E. (ed.), Stolot F., Warsaw 1991, pp. 42, 43, 44
  • Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Małopolsce i na Podkarpaciu, Poznań 2012, pp. 395, 396
  • Maciąga M., Zespół warowny w Rzemieniu, [in:] Mielec, studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, F.Kiryk (ed.), Mielec 1994, pp. 82-114
  • Architectural and construction monument record sheet, so-called white sheet, author: Monika Piękoś, Archives of the Office for the Protection of Monuments in Tarnobrzeg

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: przełom XV/XVI w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Rzemień
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district mielecki, commune Przecław - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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