Church connected with the establishment of Ruda Castellany, later the parish of Saint Adalbert, Ruda
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Church connected with the establishment of Ruda Castellany, later the parish of Saint Adalbert

Ruda

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The structure with preserved relics of a Romanesque church, functioning here in connection with the established Ruda Castellany. Original building was made of stone, subsequent structural constitutents were made of brick or brick and stone. Further stages of development of shape of the church were Medieval and Early Modern.

History

The oldest part of the church was probably part of the original temple, existing here in 1136, erected most probably ca. 1100 (which is indicated by the bull of Pope Innocent II, mentioning Ruda among the Castellanies of Wielkopolska). Before 1264 Ruda was granted municipal rights. The attempt to establish a town was not successful, since before 1281 the nearby Wieluń was established, to which at first the capital of castellany was moved and in 1420 - the collegiate church. Multi-phase building with construction stages of 12th, 13th, 14th-15th, 16th and the end of 19th century, but for the Gothic period three construction phases may be distinguished.

Description

The church is located in the central part of the town. It is surrounded by a cemetery, oriented, single-nave with a separated presbytery. Northern wall of the nave comes from the oldest construction phase - bricked-up, one-step portal crowned with a semi-circular smooth tympanum and two Romanesque windows topped with semicircular arches were preserved in it. Original church was most probably significantly smaller and closed from the East by an apse. In the 13th century the temple was extended - a new presbytery with a sacristy was erected, and then the nave was extended. Presbytery is closed from three sides and was elevated several times. The last Gothic constituent is a cross vaulting of the presbytery. The nave is separated from the presbytery by means of a rood wall with a semicircular arch, covered with a flat ceiling. The sacristy is barrel vaulted. A Renaissance chapel of Masłowscy was added to the nave body from the North. From the East, there is a porch erected on a rectangular floor plan, with a portico supported by two pairs of Tuscan columns placed on a high plinth. The western gable is triangular and there is a sculpture of Saint John of Nepomuk above it. The western part of the church was built in place of demolished tower. Main altar is in form of a triptych, with a sculpture of Virgin Mary with a Child, probably from the late medieval period, placed in the main section. There is a sacramentarium in the presbytery, probably dating back to the 13th century. There is a baptismal font made of stone in the nave, most probably dating back to the 14th century. The facades were plastered in modern times, with an exception of the preserved and exposed relic of the wall of the oldest construction phase of the church.

Limited access to the historic building. The interior may be seen on Sundays and public holidays. On weekdays - upon consultation with a parish priest.

Compiled by Paweł Filipowicz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Łódź, 30.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Kajzer L. (ed.), Początki architektury sakralnej w Polsce, part. 1, Łódź 2009.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: początek XII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Ruda
  • Location: Voivodeship łódzkie, district wieluński, commune Wieluń - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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