Manor house and farm complex, Roskosz
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Manor house and farm complex

Roskosz

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An example of a 19th-century manor house complex consisting of an intriguing manor house and a surviving carriage horse stable, designed by the architect Franciszek Jaszczołd, their Late Classicist design being enhanced through the addition of Gothic Revival elements.

History

During the 16th century, the area became the site of a grange encompassing the village of Hrud, which became part of the Biała Podlaska county controlled by the noble house of Radziwiłł from 1573 onwards. The village received its current name between the late 17th and early 18th century. Katarzyna Radziwiłł née Sobieska (the sister of the king John III Sobieski), erected a small suburban wooden manor house here before her death in 1694.Later on, during the times of Anna Radziwiłł née Sanguszko, the wife of the great chancellor of Lithuania, a single-storey wooden palace was constructed somewhere around 1730; the building has only survived until the late 18th century, when it was completely destroyed. In 1807, duke Dominik Radziwiłł donated the Roskosz manor to Teodor Michałowski, the husband of Ludwika Kamińska. Somewhere around the year 1818, the Michałowski family built a small wooden manor house here, which was then replaced by a small brick palace and carriage horse stable in ca. 1840. The design of both of these buildings - which can be admired to this day - is attributed to the architect Franciszek Jaszczołd. In the 4th quarter of the 19th century, the manor house was partially redesigned by Władysław Marconi, with another redesign following in the 1920s, when the square tower with a crenellated parapet which originally rose above the middle section of the palace was probably removed. After 1822, the original Baroque garden with bestiary was redesigned into an English-style landscape park. In 1842, the manor was acquired by the Łubieński family, while during the 1870s it became the property of the Mielżyński family. Later on, Helena Mielżyńska married Aleksander Karski, the Roskosz manor becoming part of her dowry; the manor would then remain in the hands of the Karski family right until World War II. During the 1880s and 1890s, a distillery and a number of utility buildings were erected on the site of the manor farm, some of them surviving until the present day. The manor house was destroyed in 1915 and rebuilt in later years. After 1944, the manor house and grange complex became a State Agricultural Farm (PGR), while from 1993 onwards it served various educational establishments. Today, following a comprehensive restoration, the manor house and the former stable serves as a hotel and restaurant.

Description

The manor house and grange complex is located between the Roskosz and Cicibór Duży villages, on the eastern side of the road leading from Biała Podlaska to Konstantynów. Initially, the manor had visual and communication links with the Biała Podlaska castle. The complex encompasses the manor house itself, the former carriage-horse stable as well as various manor farm buildings. The manor house was designed in the Late Classicist style, with a touch of Gothic Revival. Designed on a rectangular floor plan, the building is a single-storey structure with two-storey avant-corps on the middle axes of all of its façades; beneath the edifice itself stretches a system of vaulted basements which are believed to predate the building itself. The palace is a brick building, its walls covered with plaster. The main body of the manor house is covered with a hip roof with dormers, clad with sheet metal. The front (northern) façade follows a five-axial design with a middle avant-corps topped with a triangular pediment. The ground floor level of the avant-corps incorporates the main entrance in the form of a simplified Palladian window. The entrance is flanked by broad windows topped with segmented entablature. The façade overlooking the garden features a three-axial avant-corps topped with a stepped gable, with French windows on both levels. The western façade incorporates a two-axial avant-corps crowned with a triangular pediment. The eastern façade features another avant-corps, designed in the Gothic Revival style and framed with engaged pillars topped with pinnacles; the avant-corps itself is crowned with a pointed-arch gable adorned with plasterwork decorations which form a pentafoil tracery motif. The ground floor section of this avant-corps features pointed-arch French windows, with a tripartite pointed-arch balcony window gracing the first-floor level. All façades are topped with an entablature and partitioned with pilasters positioned on the axial lines leading between the windows as well as on the corners (with the exception of the front façade); parts of the façade are also adorned with decorative rustication. The interior is divided into a number of different rooms and generally follows a two-bay layout. The hall and the spacious, rectangular drawing room with truncated corners are positioned on the middle axis of the manor house. The interiors also features partially preserved fixtures and fittings such as tiled stoves or the plasterwork decorations in the drawing room. The landscape park was designed in the English style and features an access alley with an representational laws running along the axial line of the manor house. Behind the house there is a garden with a terrace, while towards the east lies an area of the park commanding an impressive view of the nearby ponds. A promenade formed out of the riverside wilderness leads along the southern edge of the park. The former carriage-horse stable with residential areas for horse trainers is situated by the alley leading towards the manor house. Designed in the Eclectic style on an H-shaped floor plan, it features a picturesque, complex shape consisting of a single-storey middle section with mezzanine as well as of the two-storey side wings positioned perpendicularly towards the middle section, their corners accentuated by slender octagonal turrets. The front façade follows a symmetrical design and is partitioned by lesenes and decorative framing, its middle axis accentuated by an avant-corps incorporating the main entrance into the building; the side wings of the building take the form of pronounced avant-corps. The windows and former entrance gates are topped with semicircular arches, while the attic level of the main body is adorned with a number of oculi. Balcony doors and windows in the simplified Palladian type grace the first-floor level of both of the side avant-corps. An ensemble of manor farm buildings (including a distillery, warehouses and livestock buildings) is located on the northern side of the park; the buildings, made of brick and field stones, have seen a number of alterations throughout the ages.

The site is open to visitors.

compiled by Bożena Stanek-Lebioda, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 18-08-2015.

Bibliography

  • Aftanazy R., Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolitej, vol. 2, Województwa brzesko-litewskie i nowogródzkie, Wrocław 1992, pp. 127-130.
  • Fijałkowski D., Kseniak M., Parki wiejskie Lubelszczyzny - stan ochrona i rewaloryzacja biocenotyczna, Warsaw 1982, pp. 113-114.
  • Jaroszewski T. S., O siedzibach neogotyckich w Polsce, Warsaw 1981, pp. 45, 291.
  • Jodłowski A., Dzieje obiektów zabytkowych z wybranych miejscowości północno-wschodniej części woj. lubelskiego, Biała Podlaska 2002, pp. 96-99.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Vol. VIII: Województwo lubelskie, issue 2: Powiat Biała Podlaska, Warsaw 2006, pp. 214-216.
  • Łoski J., Roskosz, “Tygodnik Lustrowany”, 1876, no. 45, pp. 294, 296. Łoza
  • Pasieczny R, Stajnie polskie, „Architektura”, 1998, nr 7 s……
  • Seniuk B., Hrabstwo bialskie. Porównania i rekonstrukcje przestrzenne 1782-2002, (in:) Radziwiłłowie. Obrazy literackie. Biografie. Świadectwa historyczne, Stępnik K. (ed.), Lublin 2003, pp. 470-473.
  • Żywicki J., Architektura neogotycka na Lubelszczyźnie, Lublin 1998, pp. 296-298.

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: l. 40. XIX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Roskosz
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district bialski, commune Biała Podlaska
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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