Hillfort - Zabytek.pl
woj. opolskie, pow. brzeski, gm. Grodków-obszar wiejski
It is located in the area of the so-called Silesian Cutting (Polish: Przesieka Śląska).
Location and description
The hill fort is located on a gentle south-western slope of a hill towering above the surrounding meadows, probably waterlogged in the Middle Ages, about 700 m west of the western end of the village of Gierów, in the forest. In the 1930s, the hill fort suffered damage from the construction of the road leading from Grodkowo through Henryków to Ząbkowice Śląskie and Niemcza and a sandpit located in the eastern part of the structure and used in the early 20th century.
As regards the horizontal projection, the hill fort is oval in shape, measures about 80 m by 160 m, and covers an area of about 6 ha. The ramparts and moats are most impressive in the southern and western part of the site. To the north, there are no traces of defence equipment. The wide waterlogged valley of the local watercourse most probably served as a defensive barrier; perhaps the equipment was destroyed by intensive commercial forestry carried out for many years. To the west and south, there is a clearly discernible line of double ramparts and moats. In the eastern and north-eastern part the hill fort was surrounded by a single line of fortifications: moat and rampart. The width of the ramparts at the base ranges from 3 to about 15 m, and their height from 0.5 to 2.5 m. The ditches measure about 7-8 m in width. Today, the described layout can be clearly distinguished against the surrounding area; the whole site is overgrown with trees and shrubs, and in the spring season some of the southern moats are flooded with water.
The exploratory surveys conducted to date allowed to preliminarily conclude that the structure dates to the 9th-10th and 10th-11th centuries. However, they failed to determine the function of the settlement.
Condition and results of archaeological research
The hillfort has been known to the local historians and archaeologists since the late 19th century. The first study was made by O. Vug. Numerous surface and verification surveys were conducted over the years. In 1958 and 1960, an identification survey was carried out by J. Kaźmierczyk and K. Macewicz. In 1967, M. Rogińska made the first measurements of the structures, and in 1969 Z. Bagniewski conducted exploratory surveys. He found several dozens of pieces of vessels. As a result of these surveys, he assumed that the hill fort was used in the 10th-12th centuries. Since he confirmed the existence of a negligible cultural layer, it was assumed that the hill fort was used for a short period of time. In 2014, exploratory surveys of the hill fort was conducted by K. Jaworski. The purpose of these surveys was to identify the structure more accurately in terms of layout, its construction and more precise determination of its time of use. The hill fort has been preserved in good condition. In 1989, a contour plan was drawn up.
It is still not known whether the site is a fortified settlement and a seat of the local lord, or one of the fortified settlements of Opolans and Silesians. Or perhaps it was a refuge for one of the tribes? It is certainly a guarded site on the west edge of the so-called Silesian Cutting. The site should undergo more extensive identification surveys. It is one of the largest structures known from the Early Middle Ages (10th-12th century). The hill fort is located in the border area between the tribes of Silesians and Opolans, and might have been used by the people of the surrounding settlements belonging to one of the above tribes, in case of danger.
The fort is situated in an area managed by the State Forests. The site is crossed along the north-south axis by a voivodeship road leading from Grodków to Ząbkowice Śląskie and Niemcza, about 700 m west of the village of Gierów, near the edge of the forest.
compiled by Krzysztof Spychała, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 14-12-2014.
- Vug O., Schlesische Heidenschanzen ihre Erbauer und die Handelstrassen der Alten, 1890, p. 131, pp. 270-271, fig. 21 (as Geuhrau);
- Hellmich M., Schlesische Wehranlagen, [in:] Altschlesien, vol. 3, 1930, pp. 47 21 (as Geuhrau);
- Kozłowska W., Wczesnośredniowieczne grody woj. opolskiego na tle warunków fizjograficzno - gospodarczych, [in:] Kwartalnik Opolski, vol. 1, 1956, item 63 (as Gierów);
- Kaźmierczyk J., Sprawozdanie z weryfikacji wczesnośredniowiecznych i średniowiecznych grodzisk na terenie woj. opolskiego w 1960 roku [in:] Ślaskie Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, 1960, vol. 3, p. 35 (as Gierów);
- Rogińska M., Sprawozdanie z inwentaryzacji grodzisk, [in:] Terenowe badania archeologiczne na Opolszczyźnie, 1967, p. 45 (as Gierów);
- Bagniewski Z., Sprawozdanie z badań sondażowych na grodziskach w Strzegowie i Gierowie, pow. Grodków, [in:] Terenowe badania archeologiczne na Opolszczyźnie rok 1969, 1969, pp. 38-39 (as Gierów);
- Kaźmierczyk J., Macewicz K., Wuszkan S., Studia i materiały do osadnictwa Opolszczyzny wczesnośredniowiecznej, 1977, pp. 126-129 (as Gierów);
- Archives of the Voivodeship Monuments Protection Office in Opole, file no. A-52/66, and Record Sheet of the Rogów Archaeological Site no. 2, AZP 89-30/38;
- Voivodeship State Archives in Wrocław, files of a team of the Self-Government Department of the Silesian Province in Wrocław, file: Geuhrau;
- Archives of the Museum of Opole Silesia in Opole, file: Geuhrau.
Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_A_16_AR.5262, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_16_AR.1371422