Archaeological site – conical hillfort, Puszyna
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Archaeological site – conical hillfort



The hill fort in Puszyna may be a relic of the local medieval watchtower located in the area of the so-called Silesian Cutting (Polish: Przysieka Śląska).

Location and description

The hill fort is located in the forest, about 600 m south of the bridge over the Ścinawka river, around 75 m east of the watercourse, next to which further to the south (about 450 m) there was one a watermill, about 100 m west of the forest road from Puszyna to Pleśnica.

The hill fort is in the shape of an oval measuring about 40 m by 45 m. The cone is surrounded by a moat and the remains of a rampart. To the north-west, west and south-west, there are traces of an additional revetment in the form of a semi-circular external earthen structure. The cone measures about 2 m in height, and the moat from 2 to 6 m in width. The inner rampart measures about 2-2.5 m in width and up to about 1 m in height.


Based on exploratory surveys the structure is dated to the 10th-12th and 13th-14th centuries. However, an investigation should be conducted that differentiates its use in both stages.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The exploratory surveys in 1933 and 1939 were conducted by G. Raschke and in 1953 by I. Kuźniewski. In 1985, as part of the inquiry concerning archival maps and interviews with residents, among others, with Karol Spyra from Piechocice, the hill fort was verified and inspected by K. Spychała. In 1986, a team of archaeologists of the conservation office in Opole conducted exploratory surveys of the hill fort and made its measurements. Surveys have shown the existence of a cultural layer, and at a depth of about 70 cm archaeologists found relics of the strip footing of the building made of clay and stone. The strip footing was probably the base of a wooden tower. Excavation of the inner yard revealed several dozens of fragments of vessels dated to the Early and Late Middle Ages. The hill fort has been preserved in good condition. A contour plan of the hill fort was drawn up in 1986. The hill fort in Puszyna has been known in literature since the 1930s. However, the description of its location was very laconic. Therefore, until 1985 the structure was not verified. Only the inquiry and field interviews with the inhabitants of the villages of Puszyna and Pleśnica allowed to determine the location of the hill fort.

The hill fort is situated in a large forest complex in an area managed by the State Forests, near the road from Puszyna to Pleśnica, about 600 m south of the bridge on the Ścinawka river.

compiled by Krzysztof Spychała, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 10-12-2014.


  • Kaźmierczyk J., Macewicz K., Wuszkan S., Studia i materiały do osadnictwa Opolszczyzny wczesnośredniowiecznej, 1977, p. 415;
  • Macewicz K., Spychała K., Wuszkan S., Puszyna, gm. Korfantów. Grodzisko, [in:] Opolski Informator Konserwatorski, 1987-88, pp. 54-60;
  • Spychała K., Czy możliwe jest jeszcze odkrycie nieznanych grodzisk? [in:] Archeologia Żywa, Nr 3(37), 2006, pp. 61-62;
  • Archives of the Voivodeship Monuments Protection Office in Opole, file no. A-696/86, and Record Sheet of the Puszyna Archaeological Site no. 7, AZP 94-34/30;
  • Archives of the Museum of Opole Silesia in Opole, file: Puschine.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: X-XII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Puszyna
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district nyski, commune Korfantów - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland


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