Lower Sanok Fortress Gateway, Przemyśl
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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A well-preserved and maintained gatehouse with partially preserved other elements of the gate has a significant scientific value as an element of the polygonal fortification system and a representation of a stage in the development of the Przemyśl ring fort. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

In 1887, in the light of the threat posed by a possible war against Russia, General Daniel Salis Soglio, the Inspector-General for Engineering, has managed to obtain authorization for building a structure that would provide further reinforcement for the Fortress of Przemyśl. That same year the construction of an internal, uninterrupted defensive line - Noyon core, planned since 1872 - began. The first design of the core was prepared by Salis Soglio. In 1877 it was modified by Anton Werner, Head of the Fortress Engineering Directorate for Galicia in Lvov. Probably in 1887 or 1888 the third defensive fortress gate was built on an important route linking Przemyśl and Sanok, as part of core fortifications. Gate wings were removed in the inter-war period and after World War II, due to the widening of the road, and the northern gate posts were demolished. Since the 1970s the gatehouse featured a fortress exhibition - a branch of the National Museum in Przemyśl. After relocation of the exhibition to the main seat of the museum, the building was taken over in usufruct by the Przemyśl Society of Friends of the Good Soldier Schweik after 2002. Currently (2014), the building is undergoing full-scale renovation and preservation works.

Description

The Lower Sanok Fortress Gateway is located in the western part of Przemyśl, in Sanocka Street, along the course of a national road no. 28 from Przemyśl to Sanok.

A preserved gatehouse - a former guardhouse - constitutes the main element of the gate. The building is situated on the southern side of the road, at the foot of the Castle Hill. The gatehouse is connected by a short section of an earthen rampart with a brick, stepped curtain wall, adjoining the building on the southern slope of the Castle Hill, linking the Lower Sanok Gatehouse with the Upper Sanok Gatehouse. A one-storey guardhouse is set on a rectangular floor plan with a semi-circular round bastion in the east. Two gate pillars with steel hinges and a niche for putting on beams that lock the gate have been preserved on the southern side of the building. The western pillar is connected with the building by a wall with an arched opening of a wicket gate for pedestrians. The opening features a preserved brick jamb and steel hinges. The wing of the wicket gate has not survived. At the northern wall of the building, at the level of the eastern gate pillar, a triangular, steel sponson covered with a conical, steel roof, has been preserved. The north-eastern sponson wall is formed by a steel door. A single-wing, steel wicket gate is located between the sponson corner and the gate pillar. Upper edges of sponson walls and the wicket gate feature a comb made of steel, spiked rods. The sponson walls and the wicket gate feature oval peepholes locked by steel shutters. The guardhouse is made of brick and includes a concrete plinth and a reinforced concrete ceiling (a concrete slab on steel double-t beams). The northern wall of the guardhouse terminates in a defensive grid that prevents invaders from entering the building’s ceiling. Inside, there are 4 enfilade rooms with primary functions, starting from the south: a residential room, an entrance vestibule, a latrine and a guard room (a fight room). The entrance to the interior on the eastern wall of the guardhouse is preceded by concrete stairs. The entrance door is made of steel and includes a peephole that can serve as an embrasure. On the right side of the door, at the round bastion wall, there is an elongated embrasure. A rectangular window with a steel grate is found on the opposite side of the door. The second window of that type is located in the eastern part of the round bastion wall. The southern part of the round bastion features 2 embrasures that flank the entrance to the building, while the northern wall includes 3 embrasures facing a passage running through the gate and a wicket gate for pedestrians.

The gatehouse is accessible all year round. The interior of the guardhouse can be viewed during opening hours. Guided tours available upon prior appointment by phone. The gatehouse is located along the black and yellow tourist route of the Good Soldier Schweik. After the completion of renovation, the gatehouse will mark the beginning of a tourist route along the south-western section of fortifications of the fortress core.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 29-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, w: Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, t. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Pierwszy Obwód Obronny, Przemyśl 2002.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.

General information

  • Type: defensive architecture
  • Chronology: 1887-1888
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Sanocka 19, Przemyśl
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district Przemyśl, commune Przemyśl
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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