Palace complex, Przecław
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The complex, consisting of a palace, an outbuilding and a park, is an example of the palace complex with unique value on the regional scale. Its uniqueness draws from a picturesque body of the castle, marked by numerous alterations, which in consequence bestowed it with an English Gothic Revival style with a slightly eastern stylistic traits. A landscape park with clear fortifications and earlier parterre gardens forms an excellent background for the residence.

History

The history of noble settlements in Przecław dates back to the third quarter of the 15th century - the period when a wooden defensive manor, the so-called fortalice, existed here. It was probably designed by Stanisław Ligęza. In the years 1580-1590 a Renaissance, two-storey manor house with a basement, crowned with a parapet was erected in the complex area upon initiative of Andrzej Koniecpolski. Additionally, a parterre garden was established in the surrounding. In the 2nd quarter of the 17th century a loggia was added to the existing corpus in the north at the initiative of Stanisław Koniecpolski. In 1677 Przecław was bought by the Rey family (the property remained in their hands until 1945). In 1690 Jan Rey commissioned Tilman van Gameren to prepare a manor and fortifications expansion design, however, these plans were not put into practice. However, already in the years 1808-1810, at the initiative of Kajetan Rey, the body of the manor house was enriched by a corner extension at the north-western corner of the building and reconstructed by eliminating a parapet comb. At that time, an outbuilding was erected at the north-western corner of the manor house and a garden underwent thorough alteration. Another reconstruction was initiated by Mieczysław Rey in the years 1876-1880 to the design of Filip Pokutyński. It resulted in a transformation of a corner extension through an upward extension into a communication tower, construction of a vestibule in the west, construction of an upper floor loggia, a corner extension and terrace in the south and decorating of the façade with coats of arms of subsequent owners. Another expansion of the manor house was carried out at the turn of the 19th and 20th century by adding a tower in the south-western corner. Expansions completely changed the character of the residence: it was transformed from a manor house into a pronounced castle with a Gothic Revival, albeit a little exotic, style. During World War I the castle was damaged; during the next World War it was devastated. After World War II the castle housed a grammar school for a short spell. In 1946 the castle was set on fire; after the fire the roof and tower were renovated. Afterwards, it remained abandoned and out of use for a longer period. In fell into ruin after being burned down in 1967. In 1970 the complex was taken over by WSK Mielec, which initiated a long-standing revalorisation process that began with a full-scale renovation in the years 1973-1986. Currently, a conference centre with a hotel and restaurant functions in the castle.

Description

The castle complex is located in the central part of the town, on the west bank of the Wisłoka river, on an elevation lowering to the river valley in terraces. It is limited in the east and west by local roads, in the north by a local Słowik stream, which is a borderline of plots of the south frontage of the market square and church hill and in the south by utility buildings.

The castle was erected in the central part of the complex, on the eastern border of the plateau; its front faces to the west; the building was set on a rectangular floor plan with a row of annexes at shorter sides: on a rectangular floor plan in the south, with a cylindrical tower in the south-western corner; in the north similar to the rectangle with a number of fractables. A single-bay, tripartite interior arrangement on the ground floor and a two-bay arrangement on the upper floor has been preserved in the main corpus. Below the corpus, there are single-bay basements accessible from outside. Two-bay interior arrangement with a corridor in the middle is visible in the southern annex, while the northern annex has a single-bay arrangement. The main corpus of the castle has a basement and features a compact, rectangular, two-storey body covered with a sunk roof with a parapet devoid of a comb. In the north the annexes are rectangular, one-storey, with flattened gable roofs obscured by roof parapets. Over the rectangular annex in the south, there is a terrace roof, whose roof parapet serves as a balustrade. The body is diversified by: a cylindrical tower covered with a conical roof in the south-western corner of the castle, a cuboidal tower covered with a steep hip roof and a rectangular, one-storey vestibule added at the front, crowned with a roof parapet. The castle is made of brick and partially of stone on the ground floor, with walls plastered on both sides; the roofs were covered with sheet metal. The front, west façade, in the middle part, in the main corpus, has two storeys and a tall roof parapet without a comb and six windows per each storey, arranged irregularly and along axes that do not overlap one another. Its axis is accentuated by a vestibule and single-axis fractables of annexed avant-corps. In the north, the front is accentuated by a tower with a highly sculpted and intricately decorated crowning cornice and a one-storey annex; a balancing element in the south is a one-storey annex with a terrace on a roof, accentuated by a low cylindrical tower. Windows with a rectangular contour are decorated with pointed-arch surrounds with a finial and a ceramic rosette; only the two extreme windows are accentuated with a window header with a ceramic roof. Storeys are partitioned by modestly profiled cornice clad with beaver tail, interrupted by finials forming a part of window decorations. An identical cornice crowns the entire facade - it is extended by a roof parapet’s frieze with decorations consisting of an arcade and terminating in a cornice on corbels at the top, clad with roof tiles. The façade is embellished with four coats of arms: Oksza, Hadbank, Rogala and Trąby, locate below the roof parapet. The middle part of the east façade consists of a corpus of the building with irregularly arranged windows on two storeys and decorations analogical to the front with additional cubes in the crowning cornice. Annexes overlap the southern façade of the corpus: a two-storey one with a loggia and a projecting one-storey annex with a cylindrical tower, singled out by horizontal strips in plasterwork. The north façade is obscured in half by numerous fractables of annexes, dominated by a three-storey tower buttressed on corners, with a rose window with a quatrefoil inscribed into it on the middle storey and with a lavishly decorated upper storey crowned with an impressive cornice. The entire building rests on a tall plinth. Ground floor rooms draw attention through their vaults, similarly as in basements. As regards original fittings preserved in the interior, it is worth mentioning a Renaissance Revival oven from 1810 and a fireplace with a Gothic Revival eaves.

The outbuilding is located in the immediate vicinity of the castle and accentuated its front in the north. It was erected on a rectangular floor plan and features a porch resting on four pillars at the front, with a basement extending under parts of the building, accessible from outside. Moreover, its cuboidal body is covered with a gable, stepped roof over the porch. The outbuilding is made of brick, has plasterwork on both sides of walls and stands on previous stone basements. Its roof is clad with ceramic roof tiles. The front façade is symmetrically arranged. It consists of one storey, seven axes, rests on a plinth and features stairs leading to the porch featuring lavish carpentry decorations with a stylised floral motif. The five-axis rear façade is symmetric and devoid of ornaments, similarly as eleven-axis east and west façades. The interior was planned in a two-bay layout.

The landscape park contains relics of previous complexes: earthen fortifications of the old fortalice and clear terraces of the Renaissance parterre garden. They are incorporated into the layout of the 19th-century garden, where viewing clearings dominate on the eastern side of the castle, separated by lime tree alleys in the north and south. Unrestricted groups of plantings, compact tree screens and a steep escarpment with a dominating body of the old ancestral seat of the Rey family form an immensely picturesque entity.

The historic monument is accessible. The park is accessible; interiors of the castle can be viewed on weekdays upon prior arrangement, while guided tours are offered on Saturdays and Sundays.

compiled by Mieczysław Kuś, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 12-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Żurawski J., Zamek w Przecławiu, powiat mielecki, woj. Rzeszowskie, Kraków b.r.w.
  • Mossakowski S., Tyman z Gameren architekt polskiego baroku, Wrocław, Warszawa. Kraków, Gdańsk 1973, s. 203-204
  • Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Małopolsce i na Podkarpaciu, Poznań 2012, s. 355-358
  • Polakowski S. Pozostałości założeń dworskich województwa podkarpackiego, Krosno 2012, s. 279-281
  • J. Piórecki, Zabytkowe ogrody i parki województwa rzeszowskiego, Bolestraszyce 1996, s. 93-96
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Zamek, oprac: P. Błasiak, 2003 r., Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatury w Rzeszowie
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Oficyna zamkowa, oprac: P. Błasiak, 2003 r., Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatury w Rzeszowie

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1580-1590
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Podzamcze 8, Przecław
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district mielecki, commune Przecław - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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