Palace and park complex, Panieńszczyzna
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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A well-preserved example of a nobleman’s grand country residence from the late 19th century - a historical monument of regional importance. The palace was designed by the architect Aleksander Zwierzchowski, with interior decorations by Chmielewski and Brass - two renowned specialists in the field of decorative plasterwork from Lublin, with the painted decorations by the Warsaw artist Czajewicz providing the finishing touch.

History

Panieńszczyzna currently remains a separate part of Jastków, which is one of the oldest villages in all of the Lublin region. During the 12th century, the village remained the property of the Sieciechów abbey, while from the late 14th century it was owned by the noble family of Grot; later on, the land was subdivided into smaller units, with the individual pieces of land being owned, among others, by the Prandot, Szaniawski, Gałęzowski, Mełgiewski, Piotrowski and Jastkowski families who all built their residences here. In 1767, the part of the area situated alongside the road towards Warsaw was the property of Adam Szaniawski and his wife Urszula Szaniawska née Olędzka, who controlled most of the neighbouring lands. At that time, the site was occupied by a manor house surrounded by an Italian-style garden, which was replaced by the existing residence in the 19th century. From 1817 onwards, the manor remained in the hands of the Głuski family, while from 1839 onwards it became the property of Tekla Umieniecka née Krasińska and her children. In 1854, the land was acquired by Jan Nakwaski, who subsequently sold it to Florian Morawski four years later. In 1863, Ignacy Budny acquired the land as part of the dowry brought in by his wife, Karolina Budny née Morawska. Latest architectural research suggests that somewhere around the mid-19th century, a single-storey brick manor house was built here, followed by a nearby outbuilding shortly afterwards. It was on the basis of these buildings that a palace was subsequently erected for Nikodem Budny, Ignacy’s son - a nobleman, industrialist and social activist. The first stage of the construction process, involving the current middle section of the palace, was completed in 1894, with the side wings being added during the early 20th century. The design was created by the architect Aleksander Zwierzchowski, with interior decorations being the work of local specialists Chmielewski and Brass, who were responsible for the plasterwork, and Jan Czajewicz from Warsaw, who created the painted decorations. In addition, the landscape park was also extended, while the manor farm and utility facilities continued to be developed. After World War II, the manor was split into smaller sections, with the palace being used by a variety of institutions. Today, the building serves as the municipal office. From 2006 onwards, the palace has been undergoing comprehensive renovation works.

Description

The palace and park complex is located on the south-western side of the road leading from Warsaw to Lublin, at a distance of approximately 350 metres from the road itself. It consists of a palace surrounded by a park as well as of a guardhouse, with the former utility and farm section being situated towards the west. The Palace. The palace was designed in the eclectic style. The front façade of the building faces the east. The palace consists of a number of distinct sections which came into being in the course of a number of construction phases. In the middle there is a two-storey corps de logis which houses the most important rooms of the palace, i.e. the drawing room, the dining room and the library, which had originally been arranged in various historical styles, as well as the hall and the vestibule with a representational staircase. Another staircase can be found inside the tower located between the main body of the building and the adjoining two-storey southern wing, slightly lower than the main body and formerly serving as the residential section. Towards the north there is a small, single-storey wing preceded by a terrace positioned west of the building. Tall basements partially extending above the ground level are present beneath the entire structure, formerly serving as the kitchen, storage rooms and accommodation for the servants. The building is made of brick, its walls covered with plaster, with wooden or brick infill ceilings inside. The basements, on the other hand, feature barrel vault. The individual sections of the building are covered by separate roofs clad with sheet metal, with the tower featuring a slender pyramid roof. The front façade follows an asymmetrical, tripartite design with a dozen-odd axes of symmetry, its middle axis being accentuated by an avant-corps projecting slightly beyond the outline of the rest of the building. Inside the avant-corps there is a representational entrance preceded by a portico with a balcony supported by both columns and rectangular pillars. The rear façade with the current main entrance is designed in a similar way, with the avant-corps housing the staircase positioned in the centre. The corners of the individual sections of the palace are accentuated by rusticated quoins; the walls are also covered by subtle, horizontal rustication, while the individual storeys are separated by widely spaced cornices with decorative panels positioned in the spaces between them. The windows are rectangular in shape, framed by plasterwork surrounds with keystones on the ground floor level; the windows on the first floor are decorated with straight cornice segments positioned directly above. The windows of the middle avant-corps and of the connecting section are topped with semicircular or basket-handle arches. Inside, the palace still retains some of its original fixtures and fittings, such as the staircase, the tiled stoves, fragments of wood panelling, plasterwork and painted decorations. The guardhouse is located along the entrance to the park, towards the south-east; it was designed on a rectangular floor plan as a single-storey building with a porch towards the north. The guardhouse is a brick structure, its walls covered with plaster, covered with a tented roof clad with sheet metal. The porch features a gable roof and is adorned by fretwork decorations incorporated into the gable. The façades are smooth, enlivened solely by the rusticated quoins on the corners. The landscape park consists of the upper garden on the western side of the palace as well as of the lower garden, located on the slope of the hill on the western side, circumscribed by a system of ponds which maintain visual links with the palace itself. The informal arrangement of footpaths and tree-lined alleys along the boundaries of the park has been preserved intact, the dominant species of trees being ash, hornbeam, lime tree and maple.

The historic monument is accessible to visitors; the palace currently serves as an office building of the local authorities.

compiled by Bożena Stanek-Lebioda, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 08-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Lebioda Bożena, Jastków. Studium historyczno-ruralistyczne, Lublin 1991, typescript available at the Archive of the Province Historical Monument Protection Office in Lublin and the Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, Regional Office in Lublin
  • Matuszczyk Z., Mach M., Zespół pałacowo-parkowy w Jastkowie. Badania architektoniczne, Lublin 2006, Archive of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Lublin
  • Record sheet, Palace and park complex. Jastków, compiled by Studziński J., 1995, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Record sheet, Palace and park complex - the palace. Jastków, compiled by Studziński J., 1995, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Record sheet, Palace and park complex - the guardhouse. Jastków, compiled by Studziński J., 1995, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Zugaj Leszek, Dzieje Jastkowa i okolic. Od zarania do 1939 roku, Lublin 2010.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 2. poł. XIX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Panieńszczyzna
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district lubelski, commune Jastków
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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