Mill, Pajtuny
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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A preserved complex of a mill with hydro-technical equipment and facilities, originating from the late 19th century and the 1920s. It is a structure of historical and technical interest. A mill was used in that place back in the Middle Ages. The mill itself is interesting in architectural terms (so-called timber framing). Within the borders of the complex, there is a sculpture of Jesus Christ the Venerable, the oldest historical item of that kind in Warmia and Mazury.

History

The mill in Pajtuny on the river Kośna existed already in the Middle Ages. The condition of the barrage was stable over the centuries, which was conducive to operations of the mill. Also a sawmill used the water banked up for the purposes of the mill. Until 1772, the mill was owned by the Warmia chapter, which reconstructed the building after it was burned down during Swedish wars. In the end of the 19th century, a new mill, existing up to this day was built (ca. in 1890), whose equipment comprised two millstone complexes. In the nest years, the mill was modernised by equipping it with grinders, roller crushers and cleaning machines. Technical equipment and hydro-technical structures were replaced with new ones in the 1920s. (approx. in 1920). In that period, the millstone was replaced with more efficient Francis turbines which worked also for the sawmill.

After the end of the World War II, the mill was nationalised; the sawmill was destroyed in 1945. In the next years, the mill was operated in accordance with its intended purpose. It was used by a Collective Agricultural Club from Purda. In 1983, the mill was sold to a private person. Most machines and equipment were dismantled. In 1987, a small water plant was launched by the mill, supplied with power generated by a water turbine up to this day. In this year, a general renovation of hydro-technical structures was carried out. In the next years, the equipment and devices of the mill were partially destroyed and dismantled. Currently, the mill complex houses a private rural tourism centre with a horse breeding farm.

Description

The mill complex is located approx. 1 km to the south-east from the village of Pajtuny, on the western bank of the river Kośna. The habitat connected with the mill constitutes a separate administration area called Pajtuński Młyn. The buildings are arranged around a rectangular yard. On the north-eastern side of the mill, there is a barn, and on the north-western side the yard is closed a brick utility building. The western borders of the complex are delimited by the miller's house. A road runs through the centre of the complex, with sections on the mill causeway and the bridge. The building of the mill constitutes a dominating point in the landscape.

The mill complex includes the following historical structures: mill with equipment and hydro-technical buildings, bridge, wooden barn, brick utility building and obelisk with a sculpture of Christ the Venerable (with date 1791, made of sandstone in the 17th century). The hydro-technical facilities include: earthen causeway, concrete weir with working and free release, turbine chamber, and power room. A causeway with weir (which is made of concrete and brick and features a working platform), forms a retention reservoir used as a mill pond. The mill houses remains of historical fittings, including, among other things: two-rotor Francis turbine, relics of line shafts and vertical bucket conveyor system, flour mixer, baggers, and stone grinder (a set of millstones), as well as a Siemens control panel. Three millstones are embedded in the walls of the building (two with signatures of the manufacturer).

The mill building rests on a high, stone foundation, and features a frame structure filled with brick, the attic is covered with weatherboards. The building is topped with a gable roof laid with ceramic tiles. From the side of the weir, an annex is added for the purposes of the small water plant, and there is a ramp in the façade.



Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne zabytków architektury i budownictwa, Młyn w Pajtunach (wraz z urządzeniami), oprac. Madziara D., Budych L., Broniewska A., 1999 r., archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Olsztynie
  • Lewandowska I., Tajemnicza figura z Pajtuńskiego Młyna, „Siedlisko. Dziedzictwo kulturowe i tożsamość społeczności na Ziemiach Zachodnich i Północnych”, Nr 5, 2008, s. 32-36.
  • Płoski A., Historyczna infrastruktura wodna Warmii i Mazur, „Warmińsko-Mazurski Biuletyn Konserwatorski” 2014, nr 6, s. 87-88.
  • Sobaczewski K., Wykorzystanie rzeki Kośny do celów przemysłowych i technicznych, „Warmińsko-Mazurski Biuletyn Konserwatorski” 1999, nr 1, s. 109, 113, 124-130, 134-136, 141.

General information

  • Type: mill
  • Chronology: 1890
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Pajtuny
  • Location: Voivodeship warmińsko-mazurskie, district olsztyński, commune Purda
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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