Palace and park complex, Oleszno
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Palace and park complex

Oleszno

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The palace complex is an example of the 19th century farmhouse of a wealthy landowning family, created upon the previous architectural system. Its founders, the Niemojewskis, were closely related to the famous Niemojewski brothers, “Kaliszanie" and the Krasiński family.

History

The first fortified building was built in the 17th century by the famous Szafraniec family of the Starykoń coat of arms. Probably already expanded, it is recorded in the 1627 inventory as a castle (in other sources from the period it is referred to as a castle on a mound surrounded by a moat). In 1721 became the property of the Niemojewski family. At that time, next to the old castle (already used as an outbuilding), a wooden manor house was raised with corner extensions which survived until the mid-19th century. In the early 19th century, another family member, Edward Niemojewski, built a new classicistic palace on the site of the former castle. The palace was ready before 1847. It probably stands in place (or even on the basement) of the old castle. At the same time, the entire manor complex was developed composed of the residence on the island, a large park with a water system and the grange. The new manor house (sometimes called a palace) was enclosed on three sides by canals and a pond on the west. A manor garden was maintained around with meadows to the south and ponds to the north. The palace was extended, probably in the early 20th century, adding a south-facing square storied "tower”, at the same time retaining, or perhaps reorganizing, the grange and further surroundings. The axial landscape composition of the complex was still visible after WW2: the church on the east-west axis and the dominating house on the island sitting at the axis intersection. The property remained in the Niemojewski’s possession until 1945. After nationalization, it fulfilled a number functions: school, health center, seat of various agricultural cooperatives. In the 1960s it started to fall into decay and its use was gradually limited. In 1999 the Governor of Świętokszyskie Voivodeship transferred the ownership of the property to the authorities of Włoszczowa County which sold it to a private person in 2003. They started to renovate the building, but the works were irregular and soon ceased. Today the building is unused and neglected.

Description

Today, the old residence of the Niemojewskis functions as a palace and park complex with a water system; other elements of the grange are party gone and partly beyond the scope of protection under the register of historic monuments (have been largely altered). The palace is situated on a small hill of a regular rectangular shape. It is encircled with a canal that resembles a moat, hence the historical presence of a bridge on wooden stilts. The "island" took its current form in the 1st half of the 19th century; after the take-over by the State Treasury and in the last decade of the 20th century, it was distorted and reduced. The whole complex resembles a compact cluster of old trees, without a visible park layout. The preserved palace is in the most part a storied building on a rectangular plan, with high, vaulted basement, storied avant-corps on the axis and an annex on a square plan from the south, looking like a tower. In the north part of the spacious hall, there are/were “landlord’s chambers” with a large parlour, owners’ rooms and small chapel in the corner; to the south, there was a dining room, kitchen and other rooms along the corridor. Wooden stairs lead from the hall to the attic which offers an excellent view of the surrounding area: to the east and west. The front façade with a porch faces west while the east façade faces the garden and the parish church. These façades are symmetrical (in the original body), with a three-axis, storied central avant-corps covered with a triangular top and embellished with a four-column porch to the front. The building was erected on the stone foundations and basement, the higher walls made of brick. The basement has barrel vaulting, in the upper floors the ceilings are mostly wooden; the roof truss is reinforced with steel elements (thoroughly renovated in the 1990s), and the roof covered with sheet steel. Today, the complex and its surroundings are in a very poor condition.

The site is not accessible (and not very well visible) - a private property

Compiled by Dariusz Kalina, 22.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, „Założenie dworskie”, „Dwór”, „Budynki gospodarcze”, oprac. M. Gorzelak, Kielce 1996, mps w archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Kielcach i Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie.
  • Bogdanowski J., Katalog zabytkowych parków i kompozycji krajobrazowych województwa kieleckiego OLESZNO, gm. Krasocin, Kraków 1967, mps, archiwum WUOZ w Kielcach.
  • Kajzer L., Założenia obronne w Krzelowie, Olesznie i Sancygniowie. Wybór podstawowych danych historycznych i wyniki wstępnej kwerendy archiwalnej, Łódź 1981, mps, archiwum WUOZ w Kielcach.
  • Kalina D., Chotów i Oleszno - dziedzictwo dziejowe gminy Krasocin, [w:] Na włoszczowskich drogach historii. Materiały z sesji naukowych odbytych w Gruszczynie, Ludyni, Olesznie, Włoszczowie poświęconej dziejom powiatu włoszczowskiego, red. D. Kalina, Kielce-Włoszczowa 2012.
  • Mirowski R., Zabytkowe układy urbanistyczne na terenie powiatu. Zabytki nieruchome ziemi włoszczowskiej cz. IV, [w:] Na włoszczowskich drogach historii. Materiały z sesji naukowych odbytych w Gruszczynie, Ludyni, Olesznie, Włoszczowie poświęconej dziejom powiatu włoszczowskiego, red. D. Kalina, Kielce-Włoszczowa 2012.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: ok. 1840 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Oleszno
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district włoszczowski, commune Krasocin
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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