Ruins of the Kamieniec castle, Odrzykoń
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Ruins of the Kamieniec castle

Odrzykoń

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The feature is an example of remnants of the medieval, multi-segmental defensive and residential complex with utility facilities, which served as a residence of magnate families in the early modern era.

History

The first residence that exhibited defensive features existed on the hill already in the first half of the 14th century. The records of 1348 mention a castle belonging to Mikołaj of Babice, a Burgrave of Kamieniec, which at that time performed a strategically important function of a fortified venue on the Polish-Ruthenian borderland. In the 1390s Odkrzykoń village and the Kamieniec castle belonged to a Vice-Chancellor of the Crown, Klemens of Moskorzów, who erected the Upper Castle and the so-called Korczyński antecastrum in the east. After his death in 1408 the castle was inherited by his sons: Klemens, Mikołaj and Marcin Kamieniecki. In the first quarter of the 15th century, Klemens and Marcin Kamieniecki added the so-called Odrzykoń antecastrum to the Upper Castle. Thus, the local stronghold was shaped as a defensive complex consisting of four segments located on different levels of the castle hill. In 1530 the brothers sold the Middle Castle and the eastern antecastrum to Castellan of Biecz, Seweryn Boner of Balice, who also took possession of the Upper Castle with the western antecastrum. From that time, the Kamieniec castle had a two-partite ownership structure, which led to long-term conflicts and disputes between its co-owners. The last quarter of the 16th century saw considerable changes in the ownership structure of the entire castle complex, resulting from the purchase of the Upper Castle with the western anetcastrum by the Sienieński family in 1579. In the early 17th century Jan Skotnicki, Castellan of Połaniec, took over property of the estate. In 1593 the Lower Castle was bought by Piotr Firlej, the future Castellan of Zawichost. In the second decade of the 17th century Jan Skotnicki renovated the Upper Castle, including reinforcement of walls, renovation of vaults in the chapel, erection of a porch over the entrance gate and covering the castle façades with plaster. In 1630 the castle became the sole property of the Firlej family, through the marriage of Mikołaj Firlej and Zofia Skotnicka. Already in the early 18th century the castle ceased to function as an ancestral seat of its owners and began to dilapidate. What is more, its defensive role was highly limited at that time due to a dynamic development of artillery systems and the art of siege. Since the 1730s the castle belonged to the Scipio del Campo family, followed by Roch Michał Jabłonowski and his son, Józef Jabłonowski. In the 1840s the Lower Castle belonged to a poet, Aleksander Fredro, while the Upper Castle belonged to the Biberstein-Starowieyski family. The feature was still inhabited in the 1860s but soon afterwards it was abandoned. The last owner of the Upper Casyle was Stanisław Biberstein-Starowieyski, while the last heir to the Middle Castle was Stanisław Szeptycki. The first preservation and renovation works at the castle were carried out in the first decade of the 20th century and were continued in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1980s the guard room at the entrance gate to the Korczyński Lower Castle was reconstructed. Since 1998 the castle has been leased by Andrzej Kołder, a Krosno-based collector, museum worker and enthusiast of Old Polish culture, who has carried out a series of renovation, construction and reconstruction works in recent years.

Description

Ruins of the Kamieniec castle are located on a lofty, rocky hill, on the border of Odrzykoń and Korczyna villages. The castle consists of four parts situated along the east - west axis: the Upper Castle located on the peak of the hill, the Middle Castle situated to the east of the former and the Korczyn antecastrum, also referred to as the Low Castle, situated on a lower terrace in the east, and the western antecastrum also called the Odrzykoń Lower Castle, abutting on the Upper Castle from the west. The castle ruins are formed by fragments of perimeter walls on an irregular floor plan, preserved to the level of the second and third storey. Castle ruins are circumscribed by an earthen rampart, while in the east and the north the castle was protected by a moat. The oldest part of the former stronghold is the Upper Castle erected on a floor plan of an irregular pentagon, located in the least accessible place of the rocky headland including fragments of stone perimeter walls with three storeys and a border wall separating it from the Middle Castle. The wall of the latter features a preserved Gothic portal at the entrance to the Upper Castle. A monument with a bust of Tadeusz Kościuszko, erected in 1894, is situated within the Upper Castle. The best-preserved element of the complex is the Middle Castle with a courtyard in the central part, which currently features a reconstructed stone chapel and a two-storey guard house in the eastern part. The guard house contains a permanent exhibition of the history of the castle with an interesting collection of militaria. The eastern Korczyn antecastrum, erected on a plan similar to a trapeze, covers the largest area of the former stronghold and is surrounded by remains of defensive walls only from the south. This part features rooms reconstructed in recent years, currently used as souvenir shops. Lower parts of the utility building that stands in the northern part of the eastern Korczyn antecastrum were extended upwards and adapted to exhibition purposes and to serve as a café. The western antecastrum represents the western part of the stronghold, erected on an irregular floor plan and flanking the Upper Castle from the Odrzykoń village.

The castle ruins are open to visitors.

compiled by Andrzej Gliwa, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 17-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Aftanazy R., Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolitej, t. 8, Województwo ruskie. Ziemia przemyska i sanocka, Wrocław 1996, s. 362-385.
  • Frazik J. T., Zamki ziemi rzeszowskiej, Kraków 1971.
  • Gil Z., Zamek Kamieniec w Odrzykoniu - prace badawcze i konserwatorskie, w: Zamki w Karpatach, red. J. Gancarski, Krosno 2014, s. 187-212.
  • Guerquin B., Zamki w Polsce, Warszawa 1984, s. 227-229.
  • Marszałek J., Katalog grodzisk i zamczysk w Karpatach, Warszawa 1993, s. 165-170.
  • Wajdowicz M., Zabytki architektury rezydencjonalnej i obronnej województwa rzeszowskiego, w: Architektura rezydencjonalna i obronna województwa rzeszowskiego w świetle badań naukowych prowadzonych w 25-leciu PRL, red. M. Bujnowska, Łańcut 1972, s. 137-155.

General information

  • Type: castle
  • Chronology: XIV-XVI w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Odrzykoń
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district krośnieński, commune Wojaszówka
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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