Manor house complex, Obory
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The Baroque manor house in Obory is a unique example of a brick residence of the Polish nobility from the 2nd half of the 17th century. It represents a type of a suburban house with a reduced representative part, serving as owners’ leisure settlement. This residence, inhabited by the representatives of Wielopolski and Potulicki families, is distinctive for its extraordinary historical and artistic value.

History

In the 15th and 16th century the Obory estate belonged to the Oborski family and from 1643 onwards it belonged to the Koniecpolski family. In 1650 it was taken over by the Wielopolski family, who replaced the older building with the current brick manor house. Researchers argue about the precise date of its construction and the author. The design of the residence was associated with outstanding architects of the Baroque era - Tylman van Gameren or Tomaso Poncino. In the years 1785-1796, by initiative of Urszula nee Potocka, widow of Hieronim Wielopolski, the manor house underwent a full-scale restoration. The initial Polish mansard roof was replaced with a new mansard roof, door frames and fireplaces were replaced in the interior, crown moulding ceilings were installed and a painted plafond was created in one of the rooms. In the late 18th century the Baroque garden was subject to alterations. In the years 1806-1944 the estate and the manor belonged to the Potulicki family. In the mid- 19th century the garden was expanded and transformed into a landscape park. In the years 1893-1896, upon commission by Mieczysław Potulicki, a well-known Warsaw-based architect Władysław Marconi modernised the manor house, added a chapel in the south and an avant-corps in the east, which houses a relocated staircase. In 1921 the design of the manor house surroundings was prepared by G. Frajgel. It was partially executed, particularly in the north-eastern part of the park, behind the ponds. In 1944 the Potulicki family was removed from their property by the Germans in an act of retaliation for the participation of the family members in the Warsaw Uprising. After the war the area of the manor and farm complex was nationalised and partitioned. At first, the manor house included a kindergarten, while in 1949 certain buildings and the park were taken over by the Executive Board of the Polish Writers Society, who in 1957 organised the Bolesław Prus House of Creative Work. Since 1990 these buildings have remained property of the Foundation of the Literature House and the House of Creative Work, which currently runs a hotel and a restaurant in the premises. In the area of the former manor farm, the Warsaw University of Life Sciences runs an Agricultural Experimental Station. The buildings belonging to a residential part have been subject to preservation works several times as a priority. In the 1960s the park was modernised.

Description

The manor house complex in Obory is located east of Konstancin - a town situated in the suburbs of Warsaw, on the eastern side of Literatów Street, which is a part of the route leading to Słomczyn. It stands at the foot of the Warsaw Escarpment, in the Vistula river valley, surrounded by three nature reserves: “Łęgi Oborskie”, “Skarpa Oborska” and “Olszyny Łyczyńskie.” The main compositional feature of the complex is a manor house located on a hill, surrounded by an irregular park with numerous specimens of old trees and nature monuments, restricted from the east and north by ponds interconnected by channels. The park is separated from the remaining part of the manor farm complex by a wall. A lime and chestnut alley with a gate with rusticated pillars crowned with obelisks leads from the main road to the manor house and further, to a driveway with a heart-shaped flower-bed in the middle. On the southern side of the entrance road, there is an old stable and an outbuilding from 1791, while in the north, there is a gardener’s house and utility buildings from the 19th century. The main part of the park stretches in the south-eastern direction from the manor house. Irregular alleys intersect the straight, widest alley formerly linking the palace with the utility section.

The Baroque manor house in Obory was built of brick, plastered and rusticated. It was designed on an elongated rectangular floor plan, to which in the late 19th century a pronounced avant-corps with chamfered corners in the east and a chapel on a square floor plan in the north were added by Władysław Marconi. The building has one storey, a basement extending under parts thereof, a usable loft hidden under a mansard roof with dormers, topped with roof tiles. The chapel has a tented roof covered with sheet metal, with a sphere and a crucifix in the crest. Longer, nine-axis façades are pierced by large rectangular windows in stone surrounds. The front façade facing west is distinctive for its three-axis faux avant-corps accentuated by rusticated faux pilasters, crowned with a triangular pediment and preceded by a terrace. On this façade stone window and portal frames with chambranles are decorated with high-class Baroque detail. Triangular, discontinued pediments crowning the window and door openings are adorned with spheres on pedestals and a “Starykoń” coat of arms of the Wielopolski family. The interior of the building features a two-bay layout with a hall, vestibule and staircase positioned along the axis of the structure. The interiors include, among others, stone portals and fireplaces from the 17th and 18th century, a polychrome plafond with a Classicist grotesque and representations of four seasons in the south-eastern room, while the chapel walls are decorated with stuccos.

The feature is open to hotel and restaurant guests.

Compiled by Małgorzata Laskowska-Adamowicz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, 01-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna, Dwór, opr. Dobrowolski Jarosław, Obory 1982, Archiwum NID
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Zespół dworsko-folwarczny, Ogrodowczyk Przemysław, Obory 1994, Archiwum NID
  • Materiały przygotowywane dla Gminnej Ewidencji Zabytków Konstancina-Jeziorny oprac. Szulińska Margerita, Popławska-Bukało Ewa, Marconi-Betka Anna, Laskowska -Adamowicz Małgorzata, 2007, Archiwum NID
  • Jaroszewski T. S., Baraniewski W., Po dworach i pałacach Mazowsza, przewodnik, cz. I, Warszawa 1999, s. 90.
  • Karpowicz M., Tomasz Poncino architekt pałacu kieleckiego, Kielce 2002, s. 63-64.
  • Miłobędzki A., Architektura polska XVII wieku, Warszawa 1980, t. I, s. 379.
  • Mossakowski S., Tylman z Gameren, architekt polskiego baroku, Wrocław 1973.
  • Putkowska J., Architektura Warszawy XVII wieku, Warszawa 1991, s.163-164.
  • A. Zienc, Dwór w Oborach, „Biuletyn Historii Sztuki”, t. XXIV, 1962, nr 2, s. 188-198.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. X: Województwo warszawskie, z. 14: Powiat piaseczyński, oprac. Galicka Izabella, Żyłko Elżbieta i Kaczmarzyk Dariusz, Warszawa 1962, s. 19-21.
  • Zabytki powiatu piaseczyńskiego, oprac. Szulińska Margerita, Popławska-Bukało Ewa, Marconi-Betka Anna, Piaseczno-Warszawa 2014, s. 9, 37.
  • Gola A, Krasucki M., Dwór w Oborach, http://www.muzeumkonstancina.pl/295
  • http://www.palacobory.go3.pl/index.php?component=content&task=pokaz_artykul&id=57

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: 2 poł. XVII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Literatów 2, Obory
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district piaseczyński, commune Konstancin-Jeziorna - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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