Bastion of St Hedwig, Nysa
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The bastion of St Hedwig in Nysa, due to its spatial layout and the composition of the entire complex, is a valuable example of 18th-century defensive architecture.

History

The bastion was built in 1643, and then modified in years 1742-1758 on the basis of a design by General G.C. Walware. It is comprised of earthen structures and brick and stone casemate structures created in 1771-1776. During the siege of the Nysa Stronghold by the French Army in 1807, a laboratory was arranged within the bastion, where munitions for the fighting crew were stored. Before 1859, the casemates of the bastion were used as barracks for sapper troops. From 29.08.1870, approx. 500 French prisoners of the Franco-Prussian war were held in the bastion.

After World War I, the site was sold to a private owner. Currently, it houses, among other things, a tourist information centre.

Description

The structure is located in the northern part of the park of the old town, in the quarter delimited by Forteczna, Armii Krajowej, W. Pola, and Piastowska Streets.

The bastion is built on a pentagonal floor plan, with a pentagonal yard open from the south-east. The body of the bastion is formed by so-called gorges, canon stations, and an earthen structure, currently of an irregular shape, approx. 7.5 m high, with descends outside, ending with vertical walls from the side of the yard. The two-storey casemate structure, covering 4 of the 5 sides of the bastion, was built on a floor plan resembling a horseshoe. The thirty-nine-axial façade is articulated with plastered lesenes in the giant order with rectangular window openings featuring segmental arches in top sections. At the edges of the façade, there are shallow rusticated avant-corps. In the central section of the façade, a stone avant-corps with a semi-circular entrance is embedded, with a keystone with an “FR” monogram (Friedrich Rex - King Frederick) and date 1775.

In each of 23 internal segments, there are fortress rooms covered with barrel vaults. In the central suite of rooms, there is a staircase. The external outline of the casemates, adjoining the earthen structure, is formed by a corridor covered with barrel vaulting with four round ventilation chimneys. In the external sections the corridor widens, forming two two-bay Baroque cannon stations.

The surviving original fittings of the bastion include an 18th-century staircase with a cast iron balustrade, and 6 pieces of 19th-century external (panel) doors, window joinery and cast iron ventilation chimneys (ducts).

The building is accessible to visitors. It houses, among other things, a tourist information centre.

compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 05-12-2015.

Bibliography

  • Małachowicz M., Studium konserwatorskie miasta Nysy, Wrocław-Nysa 2000 r.
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków i architektury, Bastion św. Jadwigi, oprac. Małachowicz M., Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Opolu.

General information

  • Type: defensive architecture
  • Chronology: 1643 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Piastowska 19, Nysa
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district nyski, commune Nysa - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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