Urban and industrial complex, Nietulisko Duże
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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A preserved, original and Europe-unique urban layout of the industrial complex the 1st half of the 19th century with visible structures and remnants of the original water system of high spatial and architectural value.

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic’s plan of 1818 of the development of the steel industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, projects were drawn up - also with the assistance of Fryderyk Lampe - of the industrial development of the Kamienna River valley and the Kielce region. The designed Nietulisko factory was intended as the final element of “a series of ironworks along the Kamienna River” manufacturing finished products and semi-finished forged and rolled metals - relying entirely on hydropower. The construction of the water facilities for the Nietulisko plant began in 1824. For this purpose, a canal was built from the reservoir in Brody about 7km away (damming the waters of the Kamienna River). In the following years, during the terms of office of Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki, the then Minister of Revenues and Treasury, the work continued but the construction was finished only after the November Uprising, already under the management of the Bank of Poland. Before 1846, the complete hydro-technical system was ready (also providing additional water supply from the Świślina River, a tributary of the Kamienna) and the factory buildings were erected together with a housing estate. The author of the design and the site manager for the project was Karol Knake. The main facility - the rolling mill - was commissioned in 1841. The factory machinery was driven by one of the first water turbines installed in the Congress Kingdom of Poland and a huge breastshot wheel. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, the profitability of the company fell dramatically and in 1880 it was taken over - along with the entire Starachowice hub - by the Fraenkel Banking House. At the end of the century, the plant was modernized: in the 1880s two water wheels were in place, and in the 1890s a traction engine was installed; in 1895 there facility had three turbines. The great flood of 1903 destroyed the damming system in Brody and cut off the plant from the Kamienna River. Also, the Świślina River broke through the causeway and formed a new bed. Having no access to energy supply, the plant closed in 1905. The factory equipment was dismantled, taken to Russia, or sold; the factory buildings fell into disrepair, and only the administrative building and part of the workers’ dwellings were maintained in a satisfactory condition. In the 1st half of the 20th century, the property was owned by the Mining Society of the Starachowice Plant founded by Baron A. Fraenkel. In the interwar period, the majority stock in the society was held by the state. In 1943 the complex was purchased by the Radom Linen Mill. In 1961, as Nietulisko Duże A, it was claimed by the state along with all the buildings pursuant to a government’s decree on land reform. In 1948 the administrative buildings were adapted for educational purposes (kindergarten and school) and the residential houses were still occupied (though partly rebuilt). In 2001 the school plot was taken over by the municipality, and the area of the former plant is held by the state and by the Kunów municipality; in the local zoning plan, the area is earmarked to serve as a park and location for public services.

Description

The industrial complex is located along the Starachowice-Ostrowiec road, in Nietulisko Duże (previously Nietulisko Fabryczne). The road divides the area of the former plant into two parts: the north-east side with the entire water system and factory buildings and the south-west side intended for residential functions. This urban layout represents outstanding spatial values: it is a rarity in the Old-Polish Industrial Area; they are manifested in the beauty of the urban system (a palace-garden type), precise architectural solutions and innovations in the water system design. The complex consists of a water power, factory buildings and a residential estate. It is designed on two main composition axes: the main axis is aligned with the route of the inlet canal (flowing from the symmetrically formed hexagonal retention reservoir built at the meeting point of the Świślina and Kamienna rivers) and the main factory building - the rolling mill; the other axis runs perpendicularly along the longer side of the rolling mill. Along the other axis, the auxiliary industrial and administrative buildings were raised; further, there is a symmetrical and semicircular square of the residential estate, with a radial-ring system of roads lined with the residential bungalows. The water system relied on two intakes: from the canal to the Kamienna River and from the Świślina River, collecting water in the artificial reservoir. In its lower side, there was a lock allowing water into the open, upper inlet canal. The power generation system was equipped with two water wheel cages, later replaced with turbines.  The water discharged from the plant flowed in the underground outlet canal, and the excess water from the Świślina River was dumped via the weir into the side relief canal. Currently, the water system is still visible but without water; the remains of the monumental culverts and bridges are still discernible. The factory buildings include the rolling mill, dryer facility, control buildings (today a kindergarten), stables and warehouses and the former administration building (today an elementary school). Only the former administrative building and guardhouse are in a decent condition (still used). Auxiliary factory buildings are in ruins; similarly, the rolling mill. But still its spatial and architectural solutions are visible: the symmetric plan, fragmented, with a two-storey central part and a two-lane canal along the axis and two side wings of the production shops. The walls and casing of the canals are made of quarry and dimension stone, and the arcades, frames and machine foundations are made of brick; the roof truss was probably wooden with gable roofs. The carefully designed and constructed façades of the buildings and the water lock are still impressive in terms of the scale, precision of design and architectural detail.

The area is only partially fenced; the essential elements of the complex are freely accessible

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 13.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Zespół zakładu przemysłowego i osiedla mieszkalnego przyfabrycznego, oprac. W. Sławiński, Kielce 1992 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Nietulisko Fabryczne; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 3 (31) z 1996r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.
 

General information

  • Type: industrial architecture
  • Chronology: 1834-1846 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Nietulisko Duże
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district ostrowiecki, commune Kunów - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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