Farm, Niechorze
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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An example of a quadrangular, enclosed farm known locally as the “Vierkanthof” - a distinctive feature of the 19th-century seaside villages in the Western Pomerania region. With their historical silhouettes distinguished by the presence of tall roofs as well as their half-timbered wall structure - preserved mostly intact - these buildings serve as a relic of the historic vernacular architecture of the Zachodniopomorskie province.

History

The quadrangular farm in Niechorze can trace its roots all the way back to the first half of the 19th century, to a time of agricultural reform in Prussia which came after the abolition of serfdom. The first buildings to be erected here were the barn and the livestock building, which date back to the third quarter of the 19th century. The gatehouse, on the other hand, was erected much later, i.e. somewhere around the year 1860. This is confirmed both by the analysis of period maps as well as the architectural form of the buildings themselves and the type of half-timbering used. In 1856, the farm remained in the hands of Fridrich Duve, a farmer and fisherman, who erected a new, brick house for himself five years after that date. From the second half of the 19th century until 1945, the farm was the property of the Müller family; these wealthy farmers are also known to have owned a windmill in the neighbouring village. During that period, some sections of the walls of both the livestock building and the gatehouse were modified, with both buildings being extended. After 1945, the farm was taken over by the Kosiński family, hence its inclusion in various tourist brochures as the “Kosiński farmhouse”. The utility buildings underwent renovation in 1974, at which point the original thatched roofs were replaced with fibre cement cladding.

Description

The farm is situated in the northern part of Niechorze (formerly known as “Klein Horst”), at 2 Ludna st., near the junction of Ludna and Pomorska streets. The farm’s enclosed, compact quadrangular layout is very much typical for the region, consisting of four adjoining utility buildings forming a U-shaped ensemble covered with a single roof; these buildings are designed to accompany the cottage, located deeper within the farmyard. The frontal portion of the farm is taken up by the gatehouse which was also used as a utility building, including for keeping livestock; the gatehouse is adjoined by the barn and the livestock building to the west and the east respectively. All buildings feature traditional timber framing most likely made by local carpenters; some of the walls show signs of subsequent alteration works.

The gatehouse, designed on an elongated rectangular plan (dimensions: 28 x 5.5 metres) is a single-storey structure with a gallery facing the farmyard, covered by a gablet roof which conceals a spacious attic storage space. The gateway leading across the building is positioned on its shorter axis, with the remaining entrances being located in the wall facing the yard as well as in the eastern wall which runs alongside the street. The half-timbered walls feature both wattle-and-daub and brick infills, the latter having seen various replacements throughout the years. The eastern wall is made of ceramic brick. The wooden ceilings feature exposed beams; on the side of the farmyard, the beams project beyond the outer wall, serving as supports for the gallery above. The rafter-and-collar roof is clad with corrugated fibre cement boards. The aesthetic appeal of the façades stems from the regular structure of their timber framing as well as the colour and texture of the brick infills. The interior can be divided into the gateway passage (with a wooden gate made of vertical boards connected by means of horizontal battens as well as a decorative wicket gate), the stable, the woodshed, the henhouse and the dovecot, the latter forming part of the wooden gallery.

The barn was erected on a rectangular floor plan, its dimensions being 15 x 8 metres; the building features a three-sided roof of the gablet type. The gateway leading across the building is positioned on its shorter axis, with the remaining entrances being located in the wall facing the yard. The building features timber-framed walls with both wattle-and-daub and brick infills. The brick infills in the front wall were replaced during the building’s lifetime. The infills are left exposed, with the exception of the wattle-and-daub ones, which are covered with plaster. The roof is of the rafter-and-collar type. The façades are accentuated by the regular arrangement of the half-timbering, with the individual sections of the walls exhibiting differences as to both texture and colour scheme. The western façade features brick infills, whereas the façade overlooking the farmyard takes the form of a black-and-white grid. The interior consists of a walk-through threshing hall, a haymow, a husking room and a fishing equipment storage; today, the building serves as a garage.

The livestock building was erected on a rectangular floor plan, its dimensions being 22 x 7 metres; the building features a three-sided roof of the gablet type, extended upwards to accommodate a knee wall. All entrances to the building are located on the side facing the farmyard. Originally, the walls featured a timber frame structure (half-timbering) with wattle-and-daub infills; some of the original structure still survives in the wall positioned on the inner side of the building (i.e. facing the farmyard). Towards the end of the 19th century, most of the original wattle-and-daub infills were replaced with ceramic brick. The building features a wooden ceiling with exposed beams. The simple, rafter and collar roof features tie beams positioned on the so-called jack-rafters. The façades exhibit no particular features indicating a specific architectural style, their axial divisions corresponding to the functions of the building’s interior. The brick walls of the eastern and northern façades feature a uniform colour scheme and texture, with the bricks laid in the so-called Flemish bond. The interior maintains its original layout, with a stanchion-tied cowshed and pigsty divided into stalls.

Private property. The site (visible in its entirety) can be viewed from the outside, from the nearby road. Accessing the yard is only possible by arrangement with the owner.

compiled by Waldemar Witek, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Szczecin, 13-05-2015.

Bibliography

  • Arlet J., Drewniane budownictwo szkieletowe na Pomorzu Zachodnim, Szczecin 2004.
  • Bronish O., Ohle W., Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Pommern. Kreis Kammin Land. Stettin 1939.
  • Wróblewski T., Z zagadnień budownictwa wiejskiego Ziemi Kamieńskiej. “Rocznik Kamieński”, 1957, vol. 2, pp. 107-153.

General information

  • Type: utility building
  • Chronology: 1 poł. XIX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Ludna 2, Niechorze
  • Location: Voivodeship zachodniopomorskie, district gryficki, commune Rewal
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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