Archaeological site – ring hill fort, Mokre
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Archaeological site – ring hill fort

Mokre

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The hill fort in the village of Mokre located at the top of the currently wooded hill could be a shelter (refugee) structure of the Lupiglaa (Głupczyce), a Slavic tribe. The hill fort is also recorded in the village of Pielgrzymów.

Location and description

The hill fort is located on the eastern slope of the hill known as "Grodzie", "Burgberg" or "Bursztet" (formerly Burgstaedtel), in a group of three elevations, in the western part of the Głubczyce Plateau, between the villages: Mokre, Pielgrzymów, Dobieszów and Radynia, on the southern side of the road from Dobieszów to Opawica, at a distance of about 200 m.

The ring hill fort was established on the slope of a hill in the shape of an oval measuring about 120 m by 135 m. The yard is surrounded by a moat measuring about 7-8 m in width. The rampart visible in the form of remains measures about 8-10 m in width. The western part of the rampart is affected by trenches made during World War 2. The structure covers an area of around 1.2 ha in total. In the north-western and south-western part, there are narrow causeways, entrances to the yard. Today, the layout described above can be clearly distinguished against the surrounding area; it is wholly overgrown with trees and shrubs, and lilies of the valley in the undergrowth.

History

Exploratory surveys have allowed for an initial definition of the chronology of the structure generally for the early medieval period.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The hill fort has been known to archaeologists since around 1884. It was repeatedly investigated on the surface in the interwar period and by M. Gedl in 1956 and 1962 and M. Parczewski in 1970. Exploratory surveys and measurements were carried out by K. Macewicz, K. Spychała, and S. Wuszkan in 1981. They found some fragments of vessels dating back to the early medieval period. Inside the excavation in the central part of the yard, they discovered a relic of a stone wall set on a rocky foundation, perhaps the foundation of an undefined structure. The trench was also excavated. Analysis of the stratigraphy of its profile allowed to determine that the rampart was built by piling up stones and clay excavated during moat construction. German archaeologist Uhtenwoldt found that the structure was used by the Lusatians. However, other German and Polish archaeologists believe that it was a fortified settlement used in the early Middle Ages. The hill fort has been preserved in good condition. A contour plan was drawn up in 1996.

The fort is situated in an area managed by the State Forests, about 200 m west of the old unused quarry, now a forest lake, about 300 m north-east of an unpaved road running along the forest from the Dobieszów-Opawica road, towards the village of Radynia.

compiled by Krzysztof Spychała, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 13-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Hellmich M., Schlesische Wehranlagen, [in:] Altschlesien, vol. 3, 1930, p. 39;
  • Kozłowska W., Wczesnośredniowieczne grody woj. opolskiego na tle warunków fizjograficzno - gospodarczych, [in:] Kwartalnik Opolski, 1956, vol. 1, item 130;
  • Gedl M., Sprawozdanie z badań weryfikacyjnych przeprowadzonych w 1962 roku na terenie powiatu Głubczyce, [in:] Sprawozdania z terenowych badań archeologicznych przeprowadzonych na terenie województwa opolskiego w 1962 roku, 1962, p. 37 (as Pielgrzymów);
  • Gedl M., Kultura łużycka na Górnym Śląsku, 1962, p. 220 (as Pielgrzymów);
  • Antoniewicz W., Wartołowska Z., Mapa grodzisk w Polsce, 1964, p. 40;
  • Kaźmierczyk J., Macewicz K., Wuszkan S., Studia i materiały do osadnictwa Opolszczyzny wczesnośredniowiecznej, 1977, pp. 379-381 (as Pielgrzymów), p. 304 (as Mokre);
  • Macewicz K., Mokre, gm. Głubczyce. Grodzisko, [in:] Opolski Informator Konserwatorski Nr 2, 1983, pp. 72-76;
  • Archives of the Voivodeship Monuments Protection Office in Opole, file no. A-296/70, and Record Sheet of the Mokre Archaeological Site no. 1, AZP 100-34/2;
  • Archives of the Museum of Opole Silesia in Opole, file: Pilgersdorf. Kr.Leobschitz.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: X-XII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Mokre
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district głubczycki, commune Głubczyce - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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