The parish church of St Stephen Deacon and Martyr, Mnichów
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The parish church of St Stephen Deacon and Martyr

Mnichów

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A unique Baroque wooden church of the 18th century of remarkable architecture values with a uniform Rococo furnishings

History

The date of construction of the church is not known. The owner of Mnichów in the late 19th and in the early 20th century, Judge Wacław Jaskłowski, on the basis of the annuals of the Kraków diocese, proposed the date of 1731. According to other sources, the church was funded in 1754 by the archdeacon of Kraków and the owner of Mnichów, Maciej Jerzy Łubieński. The same date was confirmed by the Rev. J. Wiśniewski who saw it engraved on the door frame of the main entrance to the building. The Foundation Act of 13 February 1770, kept in the Chęciny Municipal Recrods, points to the starost of Budziszów, Stefan Dunin-Wąsowicz, as the founder - he purchased the Mnichów estate from the Rev. Łubieński in the same year. The most popular view is that the foundation of the church took place in 1754 and the construction followed in the years 1765-1770. The designer is unknown. At about the same time, a belfry was erected with a flag on the roof with the date of 1758 or 1768. In 1823 or 1836 the church ceased to be a branch of the Mokrsko parish and became an autonomous parish church. 1849 saw thorough renovation of the temple. The cupola and towers received sheet metal roofing. Ca. 1917 the wooden roof shingles were replaced by galvanized sheets. The belfry was renovated in 1961. The church was renovated in 1964, between 1967 and 1969 and after 1975. In the years 2007-2013, as part of the programme, “The Treasures of Świętokrzyskie. The Route of Wooden and Medieval Architecture”, the building went through extensive renovation and its underground level was secured. At the moment, the renovation work is underway on the façade.

Description

The church is located in the central part of the village, at the No. 7 national road Warsaw-Kraków, on a square enclosed with a brick wall. A wooden belfry stands in front of the façade. The temple was built in the Baroque style, fashioned after stone churches. It is an oriented, single-nave building with a cruciform layout. The rectangular nave transforms into a short presbytery; it is bisected by a shallow transept. From the south, the presbytery adjoins the chapel of St Stanislaus, and from the north the sacristy. The west section of the church is flanked by two towers. Between them, there is a choir supported by two pillars. Between the towers and the arms of the transept, there are side porches. Under the temple, there is a crypt of the same floor plan. The church was built as a log structure of larch wood, on the oak base. The nave, presbytery and transept have gable roofs with king post truss, with the roof ridges at the same height. At their junction, there is a cupola with an octagonal drum topped with a lantern with arcades, covered with an onion roof with a crucifix. The towers have hip roofs with lanterns, covered with onion roofs with crosses on balls. The chapel and sacristy are covered with two-plane roofs and the porch with a lean-to roof. All façades are similar: on the plastered foundation, with the plinth covered in horizontal planks, there is a drip edge on a bracket; above, the walls are boarded vertically with double overlay and topped with a cornice; above the cornice, at the height of the nave, presbytery and the arms of the transept, there are projecting triangular pediments, topped (except for the front façade) with a cross on the ball. All corners are decorated with molded pilasters with Corinthian capitals. The front façade is three-axial, divided into three parts by a pair of pilasters. In the middle of it, there is a doorway with a high window above. The side façades are levelled with the walls of the towers, nave, transept and presbytery which have the same height. The octagonal cupola with its corners in the form of pilasters has a window in every other wall. The interior has a uniform wooden Rococo decor of the 2nd half of the 18th century which includes: the high altar with the image of the Madonna and Child of the 17th century, the paintings of St Matthias and Stephen on the sliding panel and sculptures of the Fathers of the Church on the sides; the side altars are attributed to W. Rojowski: in the north of the transept with the image of the Crucifixion, between the statues of the Virgin Mary and St John the Evangelist, with a sculpture of God the Father at its top, and in the south of the transept with the painting of St Joseph Calasanz, founder of the Piarists, sculpted personifications of Faith, Hope and Love and a statue of St Barbara at the top; the confessionals, the pulpit, the baptismal font and organs and a portrait of the Rev. M. J. Łubieński of 1767 in the sacristy. The belfry is built in the post-and-frame technique on the base course. From the outside, it is boarded with horizontally arranged planks. It is a two-storey building on the quadrangle plan with cut corners, the lower of which, with slightly inclined walls, is bigger. The floors are separated by a canopy. The belfry is covered with an eight-plane roof with an onion dome with a flag.

The building is generally accessible; access to the interior upon the consent of the parish priest

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland Kielce, 03.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. III: Województwo kieleckie J.Z. Łoziński, B Wolff (red.), z. 3: Powiat jędrzejowski (oprac. T. Przypkowski), Warszawa 1957, s. 23-24.
  • Adamczyk A., Kościoły drewniane w województwie kieleckim, Kielce 1998, s. 94-101.
  • Adamczyk A., Modras J., Polanowski L., Prace przy zabytkach architektury sakralnej i zabudowie miejskiej [w:] Cedro J. i inni (oprac.) Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, s. 31-32.
  • Dettloff A., Rzeźba krakowska drugiej połowy XVIII w. Twórcy, nurty i tendencje., Kraków 2013, s. 140.
  • Dobrowolska K., Mnichów. Parafia pw. św. Szczepana Diakona i Męczennika. Dekanat jędrzejowski  [w:] ks. Tkaczyk P. (red.) Diecezja kielecka. Miejsca - Historia - Tajemnice, Kielce 2011, s. 304.
  • Kornecki M., Kościoły drewniane w Małopolsce, Kraków 1999, s. 174-175.
  • Łoziński J.Z., Pomniki sztuki w Polsce, t. I, Małopolska, Warszawa 1985, s. 429.
  • Mirowski R., Drewniane kościoły i dzwonnice ziemi świętokrzyskiej, Kielce 2002, s. 36-37.
  • Tkaczyk P., Kościół świetego Szczepana w Mnichowie. Zabytek drewnianej architektury sakralnej, Kielce 2003.
  • Wiśniewski J., Historyczny opis kościołów, miast, zabytków i pamiątek w Jędrzejowskim, Marjówka 1930, s. 292-294.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1765-1770 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Mnichów
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district jędrzejowski, commune Jędrzejów - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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