Palace and park complex, Michalów
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Palace and park complex

Michalów

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A rare and valuable example of an impressive residential complex dating back to the mid-18th century. The palace, which used to serve as the summer home for the Zamoyski noble family, was designed by Jan Bem, a military engineer, and was subsequently partially redesigned in the first half of the 19th century by Henryk Ittar and Henryk Marconi.

History

The palace complex was erected in the years 1744-1746 by Tomasz Antoni Zamoyski and his wife, Aniela Teresa Zamoyska née Michowska. The palace was built on a site forming part of the Bodaczów village, acquired from the Franciscan order in Zamość in exchange for another piece of land. It was originally intended to serve as a new summer residence alongside the one in Zwierzyniec, designed with the owner’s son, Klemens, in mind; it was Klemens - who was suffering from a lung disease - after whom the residence was originally named. The design was created by Jan Andrzej Bem, a military engineer known for having created the Zamość fortress, although T. A. Zamoyski might have also contributed to the design himself. The task of overseeing the construction works was given to Jan Columbani. The palace - which has remained in an incomplete state - was modernised and extended on numerous occasions during the 19th century, including during the times when it was under the ownership of Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski and Zofia Zamoyska née Czartoryska (1810 - 1813), when the orangery was built and the front pavilions were extended under the supervision of the architect Henryk Ittar, as well as in years 1827-1841, when further works were carried out based on the design produced by Henryk Marconi and included the addition of the portico and balconies as well as an interior redesign. Further modernisation works were carried out around the year 1870 as well as in the late 19th and early 20th century. After the year 1808, the transformation of the former French-style formal garden into an English-style park surrounded by a wall with a number of gates has begun, with the entire process lasting into the early 20th century. Following the November Uprising and the loss of the palace in Zamość, the Klemensów manor became the main family seat of the house of Zamoyski along with the Blue Palace in Warsaw. It was here that a part of the vast art collection as well as the library would now be kept. During World War II, the palace was first plundered by the Soviet forces and then taken over by the Germans in 1941, when it began to serve as a hospital and recreation centre. After the war the property was nationalised, with the palace being first used as an orphanage maintained by the Franciscan nuns and then as a social welfare home. From 1993 onwards the palace remained abandoned, although recently the Zamoyski family has finally managed to regain the ownership thereof.

Description

The residential complex is located on the right bank of the Wieprz river, south of the Michalów village. The palace is a Late Baroque edifice, its main façade facing south. Designed on a complex yet symmetrical floor plan, it consists of a corps de logis flanked by a pair of avant-corps at the edges as well as of square pavilions up front (extended during the 19th century), with corridors connecting them to the main body of the palace; in addition, the palace also features a pair of narrow wings overlooking the garden. The corps de logis is designed on a rectangular floor plan with a pair of avant-corps at the edges as well as with pseudo-avant-corps in the middle of the front and rear facades. The interior follows a two-bay enfilade layout with a hall, a grand staircase extending towards the right and a drawing room positioned on the axis of the building. The front wings follow a two-bay layout, whereas the ones facing the garden follow a single-bay layout. The palace is a two-storey structure with basements under parts of the building; it is made of brick, its walls covered with plaster. The individual sections of the palace are covered with separate mansard roofs and gable roofs (the latter featuring hip ends), clad with wood shingles. The front façade of the corps de logis of the palace follows a nine-axial layout with a pseudo-avant-corps in the middle, topped with a triangular pediment; the side avant-corps follow a single-axis layout. The main entrance is preceded by a rusticated colonnaded portico with a pair of columns supporting the balcony above. All the façades feature similar partitions achieved through the use of lesenes and framing, crowned with a simplified entablature with dentilled cornice beneath the eaves; the individual storeys are separated by a string course. The gables of both the front façade and the garden façade incorporate the Jelita coat of arms of the Zamoyski family. The windows are rectangular in shape, framed with profiled surrounds with small label stops. Inside, the palace featured preserved Late Baroque and Classicist fireplace surrounds and tiled stoves as well as some of the original wooden fixtures (doors, closets, floors and staircase décor); traces of the original ceiling plasterwork can also still be found inside the palace. The orangery, built back in the early 19th century and currently serving as the chapel, adjoins the western wing of the palace. The entire complex also includes a number of various residential and utility buildings such as the emeritus house, also known as the white outbuilding, erected around the year 1872 and designed for long-serving employees of the estate - a two-storey building with façade accentuated by means of lesenes and decorative framing - as well as the doorkeeper’s house, also known as the Gothic house, erected in 1837 and featuring pointed-arch windows and blind windows adorning the façade. The English-style landscape park features a great formal lawn and driveway up front. The park originally started its life as a geometric Baroque garden and has later evolved toward a more Romanticised, sentimental and naturalist feel. The park has been extended on a number of occasions in order to incorporate various wooded areas, fields and meadows. Its diverse collection of tree species made it not just one of the largest (about 130 hectares), but also the most beautiful landscape parks anywhere in Poland.

The historic monument can be viewed from the outside (private property).

compiled by Bożena Stanek-Lebioda, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 17-04-2015.

Bibliography

  • Aftanazy R., Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolitej, vol. 6: Województwo bełskie, ziemia chełmska województwa ruskiego, Wrocław 1995, pp. 292-305.
  • Ciołek G., Ogrody polskie, Warsaw 1954, pp. 193-194, 198-199.
  • Fijałkowski D., Kseniak M., Parki wiejskie Lubelszczyzny, Warszawa 1982, pp. 218-219.
  • Jaroszewski T. S., Rottermund A., Jakub Hempel, Fryderyk Albert Lessel, Henryk Ittar, Wilhelm Henryk Minter, architekci polskiego klasycyzmu, Warsaw 1974, passim.
  • Kawałko D., Klemensów. Zespół pałacowo-parkowy, Zamość 1986.
  • Kowalczyk J., Architekci Zamoyskich w XVIII wieku, “Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki”, 1959, issue. 3-4, pp. 215-219.
  • Kowalczyk J., Zainteresowania i działalność architektoniczna ordynatów Zamoyskich w XVIII wieku [in:] Ziemiaństwo na Lubelszczyźnie, compiled by Maliszewska R., Kozłówka 2003, pp. 87-91.
  • Maj E., Mecenat artystyczny ordynatów Zamoyskich w sztuce ogrodowej na przykładzie Zwierzyńca i Klemensowa [in:] Ziemiaństwo na Lubelszczyźnie, compiled by Maliszewska R., Kozłówka 2003, pp. 154-168.
  • Omilanowska M., Polska. Pałace i dwory, Warsaw 2005, pp. 101-102.
  • Rut M., Zbiory artystyczne pałacu Zamoyskich w Klemensowie w połowie XIX wieku, [in:] Ziemiaństwo na Lubelszczyźnie, compiled by Maliszewska R., Kozłówka 2003, pp. 113-138.
  • Żywicki J., Architektura neogotycka na Lubelszczyźnie, Lublin 1998, pp. 214-215.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1744 - 1746
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Michalów
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district zamojski, commune Sułów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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