Manor house complex, Medyka
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Manor house complex

Medyka

photo

The complex, consisting of the so-called guest house, an outbuilding and a park, is an example of a manor complex with an extensive spatial and functional programme and with numerous build-ups, unfortunately preserved in a residual form.

History

Already at the beginning of the 15th century a defensive estate of the Kmita family existed in Medyka. It consisted of a wooden building surrounded by a moat and rampart. The source literature relays that in the 17th century the defensive complex was surrounded by a wooden fence, wooden towers and a gatehouse. In the 18th century Medyka was bought by Duke Antoni Lubomirski. In 1772, at his initiative, the old castle was replaced with a Baroque-Classicist complex consisting of a palace and two framing outbuildings. The Duke’s wife, Zofia Lubomirska nee Krasińska, initiated the establishment of the park, one of the first landscape gardens of the English type. The palace with two outbuildings was located on an island surrounded on all sides by waters of the old bed of the San river and connected by two bridges with gardens and a utility square. In the late 18th century Medyka was taken over by the Głogowski family, who sold it to the Pawlikowski family in 1809. The town remained in their property until mid- 20th century. In the 2nd quarter of the 19th century, at Józef Gwalbert Pawlikowski’s initiative, a botanic garden, an orangery and greenhouse complex was established in Medyka, followed by the founding of a famous horticultural school in 1830 located in the then-designed building that has survived until now. The gardens were famous for their collection of plants, while nursery production was distributed across Europe. In 1890 the palace and the southern outbuilding were demolished. The northern outbuilding, called a “House of Insurgents” was demolished in 1915. In place of the southern outbuilding a guest house in the Swiss villa style was erected in the early 20th century. The building has survived to our times. In the years 1921-1925 the new manor house was erected in place of an old orangery, at the heart of the park, at Michał Pawlikowski’s initiative. This building was completely destroyed and looted during World War II and after years of usufruct by a State Agricultural Holding it was demolished in the 1960s . In the 1970s remnants of moats were backfilled, earthen ramparts were levelled out, gardens and orchards suffered degradation.

Two buildings belonging to the original manor complex have survived: a guest house and a former school, also called a judgement house, since it served as a place where the Pawlikowski family executed corporal punishment. Out the previously vast gardens the park has been preserved for posterity; the old water system is still partially clear.

Description

The manor complex is located in the northern part of the town, on a relatively flat terrain. Its area includes an old bed of the San river and an island surrounded by the river’s waters. It is limited from the south and west by the village development, and from the north by meadows and arable fields.

The guest house is located in the southern part of the complex, on an island surrounded by the waters of the old river bed. From the very beginning of the complex, the island featured residential buildings. The building has a floor plan similar to a rectangle, with an avant-corps of the tower in the eastern corner and an avant-corps of a veranda preceding the entrance. It was built in a Swiss spa style, considered modern at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. The body consists of three part: a two-storey, cuboidal part covered with a half-hip roof, with an attic in the staircase and three dormers in the western roof cover, a one-storey connection with a small, glazed veranda and half-hip roofs as well as a cuboidal, two-storey tower topped with a steep hip roof with small dormers in each slope of the roof.

The walls are made of brick; upper parts of the building include wattle-and-daub walls; the roofs are clad with ceramic roof tiles and interlocking sheet metal. Façades are asymmetric and feature roofs at different heights, window openings of different sizes: rectangular and terminating in semi-circles, with simple window surrounds on gables. The façades include decorative elements of the wattle-and-daub walls under the eaves, while the horizontal articulation features a cornice on the level of window sills on the upper storey. The interior has preserved its original layout with three longitudinal bays.

The outbuilding, also called a judgment house, was erected for the purposes of the horticultural school. It is located opposite of the main entrance to the complex area, on the southern side of the road, on the utility square. It was erected in the Classicist style, set on a rectangular floor plan, with a cuboidal body covered with a hip roof. The building was made of brick and wood and the roof was clad with ceramic tiles. The façades include frame partitions: a plinth, an inter-storey cornice and a string course in a vertical arrangement and pilasters in a horizontal arrangement. The building has preserved the form and two-bay partitions of the interior from the construction period.

The landscape park, previously in a perfect shape and maintained on a high level, dilapidated after World War II. Only a few old tree stands of domestic and foreign origin have survived, among others, lime, oak and ash as well as platanus, gingko, black walnut and red oak.

The complex is partially accessible. The structures can be viewed from the outside. The park is accessible.

compiled by Barbara Potera, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 06-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Małopolsce i na Podkarpaciu, Poznań 2012
  • Polakowski S. Pozostałości założeń dworskich województwa podkarpackiego, Krosno 2012
  • J. Piórecki, Zabytkowe ogrody i parki województwa przemyskiego, Rzeszów 1989
  • R. Aftanazy, Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczpospolitej, t.8, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1996
  • Karty ewidencyjne zabytku architektury i budownictwa, tzw. białe, do budynków: domu gościnnego i oficyny, autor: I. Zając, 1995 r., archiwum UOZ Przemyśl

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: XV w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Medyka
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district przemyski, commune Medyka
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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