Castle - Zabytek.pl
woj. śląskie, pow. myszkowski, gm. Niegowa
The visible remains of the complex in Łutowiec are rather vestigial in nature, although from the archaeological surveys performed in the area we know that the site had once been occupied by a small castle consisting of two distinct sections. The surviving remnants, cultural layers as well as moveable artefacts preserved on the site remain a valuable source of knowledge about both the surrounding region and the defensive architecture of the late Middle Ages.
Location and description
The historical monument is situated north of the village, about 50 metres away from the closest buildings. The ruins are perched on a limestone monadnock rising about 392 metres above sea level. The monadnock, with the height of about 22 metres in relation to the surrounding area, is relatively small, its total surface being just about 525 square metres. The vestigial remnants of the castle include a fragment of a split stone wall with a total length of ca. 3.5 metres and maximum width of 0.7 metres can be seen on the eastern side of the monadnock. According to the findings made by Czesław Hadamik, this fragment formed part of the peripheral wall of the small upper courtyard. The outline of the structure is almost indistinguishable from the surrounding terrain.
No references to the castle (watchtower) in Łutowiec exist in written sources, hence determining the identity of its founder or the exact period during which the structure remained in use have proved impossible so far. According to earlier theories, advanced by Bohdan Guerquin and Marceli Antoniewicz, the structure was erected at the request of the King Casimir the Great (born 1310 - died 1370); Stanisław Kołodziejski on the other hand believes that it could only have come into being in the years 1370-1391, at the initiative of duke Władysław Opolczyk (Vladislaus II of Opole) (born 1326-1332 (?) - died 1401). According to the researchers referred to above, the watchtower must have formed part of a larger royal (or ducal) fortified complex. However, the more recent archaeological surveys conducted in the early 21st century by Czesław Hadamik seem to prove that the castle was erected in the late 14th century, perhaps even later, which means that the structure was completed after the death of Casimir the Great. Czesław Hadamik also believes that the more one analyses the available research results, the less probable it seems that Władysław Opolczyk was responsible for the construction of the castle, with the members of the Lis noble family from Koziegłowy being far more likely to have been the founders thereof. According to Hadamik, the castle/watchtower remained in use throughout the 15th century and may have existed until the earliest decades of the 16th century. Is should also be added at this stage that the very first mentions of the village of Łutowiec in written sources date back to 1399. In the early 15th century, the village formed part of the Mirów manor, its owners being the Lis family from Koziegłowy. From 1408 onwards, its owners were the successive members of the Koziegłowski family, who chartered a town under German law here in 1424. In 1445, Łutowiec was acquired by the Hińcza from Rogów, while from 1487 onwards its owners were the members of the Myszkowski family.
In addition, it should be pointed out that fragments of Bronze Age pottery of the Lusatian culture have been unearthed in the course of archaeological excavations of the site.
Condition and results of archaeological research
The most recent archaeological surveys of the site took place only in the 21st century, i.e. in the years 2005, 2006 and 2011. The surveys were headed by Czesław Hadamik, who has managed to collect evidence indicating that the castle had once consisted of two distinct sections. The structure comprised the upper section, perched atop the monadnock, and the lower courtyard abutting on the southern side of the rock outcropping and surrounded by a peripheral wall. It needs to be noted, however, that the rather limited scope of excavations has not been sufficient to perform a full-scale reconstruction of the layout of the castle.
The site is accessible all year round, although the remnants of the structure are vestigial only.
compiled by Michał Bugaj, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 07-10-2014.
- Antoniewicz M., Zamki na Wyżynie Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej. Geneza - funkcje - konteksty, Kielce 1998.
- Błaszczyk W., Inwentaryzacja średniowiecznych zamków i strażnic murowanych na wyżynie jurajskiej, “Rocznik Muzeum w Częstochowie” 1966, vol. 2, pp. 9-34.
- Guerquin B., Zamki w Polsce, Warsaw 1984.
- Hadamik Cz., Zamek w Łutowcu. Rezultaty dotychczasowych badań archeologicznych oraz potrzeby badawcze, “Wiadomości konserwatorskie województwa śląskiego. Blaski średniowiecza” 2012, vol. 4, pp. 159-176.
- Kajzer L., Kołodziejski S., Salm J., Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Warsaw 2007.
- Kołodziejski S., Średniowieczne rezydencje obronne możnowładztwa na terenie województwa krakowskiego, Cracow 1994.
Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_A_24_AR.33627, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_24_AR.1667199